Incorporation effects have been far-reaching. The role of the federal government has been significantly transformed as has the role of the Supreme Court. The basic responsibility of government to protect fundamental rights has not changed. However, citizens and the courts are still working to determine exactly what those rights are and who should be protect them. This lesson examines that question and the debate concerning "Who should protect our fundamental freedoms".
Handout A: Who Should Define Our Fundamental Freedoms? (Background Essay)
Handout B: Attitude Inventory
Handout C: Fundamental Freedoms?
Handout D: Incorporation Cases Chart
Primary Source Appendices
Founding Principles for ELL
Vocabulary Scaffolding for ELL