The Fourteenth Amendment was written to ensure that freed slaves would be treated as citizens, but, in the twentieth century the courts extended its protections to carious classes of people in carious circumstances. This concept of incorporation means that the federal government uses the Fourteenth Amendment to address limitations on liberty by states against their citizens. This lesson explores the significance of this amendment and its impact on our constitutional structure.
Handout A: What is Incorporation? (Background Essay)
Handout B: That Nation, the States, and Liberty
Handout C: Consequences of Incorporation (5 copies needed)
Primary Source Appendices
Founding Principles for ELL
Vocabulary Scaffolding for ELL