Concepts To Be Addressed
Each kind of plant and animal continues beyond the life span
of the individuals because each kind is able to produce offspring.
Each generation of animals goes through changes in form from
young to adult. The adult gives rise to the young of the next generation. This
completed sequence of changes in form is called a life cycle
For some types of animals, the young of the new generation
are better able to live and thrive because certain kinds of care are provided
to them by the adults of the previous generation.
* Shelter in the form of nests or homes
* Protection from other animals that are dangerous
* Education (humans) – training (monkeys)
The different kinds of plants and animals in an area may be
dependent upon each other for food and other needs. The group of plants and
animals that are dependent on each other in an area is called a community
The plants in a given area provide the basic food supply for
animals because only plants can manufacture food by utilizing the sun’s energy.
Animals that eat plants for food may in turn become food for
other animals. This sequence is called a food
Dependencies among plants and animals can be complex.
Different types of animals, each of which in turn may be eaten by more than one
type of animal, may eat a particular plant or animal. This complex network of
two or more food chains is called a food web.
The size of the population of individual kinds of plants or
animals in an area is affected by the dependencies of animals on plants and
other animals for food (other factors being equal).
As the food supply of some animals populations changes, the
animal’s populations will tend to change. For example:
* If the rabbit and mouse populations in a given area
increase, the hawk population tends to increase.
* If the algae populations in a pond increase, the fish populations
tend to increase.
As the population of some animals change, the food supply of
that animal’s population will tend to change. For example:
* If the deer population in a given area increases,
populations of browse, such as small trees and shrubs, tend to decrease.
* If the fox
population in a given area increases, the pheasant and rabbit populations tend
Living things are affected by and affect the environment.
The life of an animal is affected by environmental
Animals health, growth, and development are affected by
environmental conditions, such as:
* Food available
* Air available
* Water available
* Space available
* Shelter available
The behavior of animals may change when environmental
Animals obtain energy in various forms from the environment.
Animal behavior may affect the environment. For example:
* Deposition of waste materials
* Consumption of food such as prey
* Building structures such as shelters
* Destruction of vegetation
* Damming of water
* Adding carbon dioxide to the air