Learning Experience 7: Minerals in Use

TEACHER’S GUIDE

Materials:

For each group of three students:

3 Student Activity Sheets for Learning Experience 7

Pea-sized dab of hand cleaner

Pea-sized dab of toothpaste

Pea-sized dab of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)

Small piece of abrasive paper

Paper towels

Scissors

Metric rulers

For the class:

Aluminum foil

Preparation:

Read the following ingredients on the back of the hand cleaner, toothpaste box, and baking soda. Explain to students that these ingredients are made from rocks and minerals.

Session 1:

Students will identify from a chart, minerals that they are familiar with. They will choose one that they are not familiar with as the topic of a one-page report.

Session 2:

Students will experiment with abrasives used in common household products. The toothpaste contains silica among other ingredients; the hand cleaner, pumice; and the abrasive paper, garnet.

Aluminum foil and paper towel pieces will be needed for each group of students. You may wish to precut the foil and paper towels to 12 cm x 12 cm or have the students cut them. The foil should be folded in half and then in half again to form a 6cm square. The shiny side of the foil should be face out.

The paper towels will be folded to form a 3 cm square. Student groups will need three-folded foil squares and two-folded paper towel squares.

Basic Skills Development:

Following Directions

Observing

Record Keeping

Discussing

Library Research

Vocabulary:

abrasive

pumice

baking soda

soda bicarbonate

garnet

Extension:

You may extend the learning experience by using additional household materials or other samples of similar materials. You may also choose to use the second list of materials and their minerals for identifying an additional report topic.

Objective: Students will identify mineral uses in some common household products.

What can we find out about minerals used in some common household products?

The following learning experiences provide students with opportunities to observe the effect of some of the minerals found in common household products. Provide students the Student Activity Sheet for Learning Experience 7.

Session 1

Direct the student to read and complete the Student Activity Sheet for Learning Experience 7.

Discussion Questions:

What was the most common mineral on the chart?

What was the second most common mineral on the chart?

Did you find any surprises?

Session 2

Demonstrate for the students the cutting and folding of the aluminum foil and paper towels. The foil should measure about 6 cm square after folding. The paper towel should measure about 3 cm square after folding. Direct the students to place a small dab of the hand cleaner on the paper towel pad.

Students should hold the folded aluminum foil flat against their desktop. Rub the pad and hand cleaner against the foil. Rub in a circular motion for not more than 20 seconds. Record your observations on the Student Activity Sheet for Learning Experience 7.

Discussion Questions:

What change did you observe in the color of the paper towel pad?

What changes did you observe the surface of the aluminum foil?

Session 3

Direct the students to place a small dab of the toothpaste on the paper towel pad. Students should hold the folded aluminum foil flat against their desktop. Rub the pad and toothpaste against the foil pad. Rub in a circular motion for not more than 20 seconds. Record your observations on the Student Activity Sheet for Learning Experience 7.

Discussion Questions:

What change did you observe in the color of the paper towel pad?

What changes did you observe the surface of the aluminum foil?

Session 4

Direct the students to place a small dab of the baking soda on the paper towel pad. Students should hold the folded aluminum foil flat against their desktop. Rub the pad and baking soda against the foil pad. Rub in a circular motion for not more than 20 seconds. Record your observations on the Student Activity Sheet for Learning Experience 7.

Discussion Questions:

What change did you observe in the color of the paper towel pad?

What changes did you observe the surface of the aluminum foil?

Of the abrasive paper used in sessions 2, 3, and 4, which abrasive made the paper towel pad the darkest?

Session 5

Direct the students to use the piece of abrasive paper provided in the kit. Rub in a circular motion for not more than 5 seconds. Record your observations on the activity sheet for Learning Experience 7 in the Rocks and Minerals and Landforms Student Activity Book.

Discussion Questions:

Why do you think that the foil was worn faster by the garnet paper?

Session 6

Select a mineral for a topic for a one page research report from the chart for session 6 on the Student Activity Sheet for Learning Experience 7.


 

STUDENT ACTIVITY SHEET for Learning Experience 7

Name_________________


 

MINERALS IN USE

Many materials used every day by humans contain minerals. Remember if you cannot grow it, it must be mined. Some of the rocks and minerals you have identified in previous learning experiences reappear in the materials listed below. There are also some new minerals. Make a list of minerals that you are familiar with. Make a second list of minerals that you are unfamiliar with.

Material and Minerals


 

MaterialMinerals Needed to Produce Them
Carpet Calcium carbonate, limestone
Glass/Ceramics Silica sand, limestone, talc, lithium,
borates, soda ash, feldspar
Linoleum Calcium carbonate, clay, wollastonite
Glossy Paper
Kaolin clay, limestone, sodium sulfate,
lime, soda ash, titanium dioxide
Abrasive Paper
Garnet, emery, silica sand
Toothpaste Calcium carbonate, limestone, sodium
carbonate, fluorine
Lipstick Calcium carbonate, talc
Baby Powder
Talc
Hand Cleaners Silica, pumice, diatomite, feldspar,
limestone

Minerals that I am familiar with:

________________________________________________________________


 

Minerals that I am unfamiliar with:

________________________________________________________________


 

Select one of the minerals that you are unfamiliar with and write a one-page report on where the mineral is found and some of its uses and characteristics. The mineral for your report is ________________________________________________________________


 

Hand Cleaner:

What changes did you observe in the surface of the aluminum foil and the surface of the folded paper towel pad after rubbing the foil’s surface with the hand cleaner?____________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________


 

What is your explanation(s) for the change(s)?_________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________


 

Read the ingredient label on the hand cleaner. What ingredient(s) might support your explanation(s) and why?________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________


 

Tooth Paste:

What changes did you observe in the surface of the aluminum foil and the surface of the folded paper towel pad after rubbing the foil’s surface with the tooth paste?_____________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________


 

What is your explanation(s) for the change(s)?_________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________


 

Read the ingredient label on the toothpaste. What ingredient(s) might support your explanation(s) and why?________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________


 

Baking Soda:

What changes did you observe in the surface of the aluminum foil and the surface of the folded paper towel pad after rubbing the foil’s surface with the baking soda?_____________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________


 

What is your explanation(s) for the change(s)?_________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________


 

Read the ingredient label on the baking soda. What ingredient(s) might support

your explanation(s) and why?________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________


 

Abrasive Paper:


 

What changes did you observe in the surface of the aluminum foil and the surface of the folded paper towel pad after rubbing the foil’s surface with the abrasive paper? _________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________


 

What are your explanation(s) for the change(s)?_________________________


 

Additional Materials and Minerals for Investigation


MaterialMinerals Needed to Produce Them
Kitty litter
Attapulgite, montmorillonite, zeolites,
diatomite, pumice, volcanic ash
Concrete Limestone, gypsum, iron oxide, clay
Potting Soil
Vermiculite, perlite,, zeolites, peat
Paint Titanium dioxide, kaolin clays, mica,
talc, silica, wollastonite
Pencil Graphite, clay
Jewelry Precious and semi-precious stones
Optical Fiber High quality Glass
Television 35 different minerals
Automobile 15 different minerals
Telephone 42 different minerals

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