Major Science Concepts To Be Addressed

Objects have properties determined by the forms, amounts, and properties of materials of which they are made.


 

Some properties of an object can be determined by the form of the material.

For example:

Cleavage of a mineral such as calcite.


 

Properties of an object can be affected by the size of solid particles contained within the material.

For example:

Texture or feel of sandstone compared to shale rock.


 

Some properties of an object may be determined by the amount of material in an object.

For example:

The mass of pumice compared to the specific gravity of water.


 

Energy can vary in form, amount, and ability to move through materials and space.


 

Energy can exist in several forms.

For example:

Anthracite burns producing heat energy.


 

Energy can move from one object to another through materials and space.

For example:

Electricity moves more easily through some materials such as metallic ores.


 

WITHIN SYSTEMS THE INTERACTIONS OF MATERIALS AND ENERGY CHANGE THEIR FORMS AND PROPERTIES. A GROUP OF INTERACTING OBJECTS IS CALLED A SYSTEM.


 

Energy can be changed in form by interactions with materials.

For example:

Chemical energy in anthracite is changed by burning to new energy forms, heat, and light.


 

Energy in a particular form can be transferred from one object to another in a system.

For example:

Magnetism can be cause in some kinds of materials by magnetite (lodestone).


 

When energy interacts with objects in a system the properties of the objects may be changed.

For example:

The shape of rocks can be changed by forces.

Forces may break up, compact, or wear away rocks.

Chemical reactions such as acid on marble may change the properties of marble.


 

ENERGY MAY EXIST WITHIN A MATERIAL OR IN THE POSITION OR MOTION OF THE OBJECTS.

Energy within the materials of objects may be transferred through them.


 

Electrical energy can flow through circuits.


 

The amount of energy transferred during a flow of electrical energy depends on the source and properties of the object to which it is applied.

For example:

Some rocks (minerals) allow electricity to be transferred through them, such as galena.


 

The interactions of materials may produce new materials and energy may be absorbed or given off.


 

New materials produced by interactions have properties that are different from the old material.

For example:

Marble produced from limestone.


 

Some interactions that give off energy may require some energy to start the interaction; others start with no energy being added.

For example:

A volcano needs heat to be added before the volcano will erupt.


 

Limestone and hydrochloric acid require no energy to be added to interact.


 

Energy may be given off when new materials are being produced.

For example:

Hydrochloric acid mixed with limestone.


 

Energy can be transferred by changing the position of objects.


 

Forces are exerted by liquids and gases.


 

A liquid or gas in a closed container exerts force on the walls of the container.

For example:

Magma erupting from a volcano.

Non-profit Tax ID # 203478467