This lesson was created using a framework developed by the Cloud Institute for Sustainability Education. Lesson Summary:
On Top of Mt. Rushmore
5 lessons + 1 culminating activity
Standards: CORE KNOWLEDGE CONTENT1. Kindergarten History and Geography: American History and Geography (p. 13)a. Presidents, Past and Presenti. George Washingtona) The “Father of His Country”b) Legend of George Washington and the cherry treeii. Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independenceiii. Abraham Lincolna) Humble originsb) “Honest Abe”iv. Theodore Rooseveltv. Current United States presidentb. Symbols and Figuresi. Recognize and become familiar with the significance ofa) Mount Rushmore b) White HouseEfS StandardsB: Responsible Local and Global Citizenship1.Articulate the rights and responsibilities of democratic participation and leadership in both local and global contexts.2.Broaden their concept of participation in government, in their present and future lives, to encompass both the formal political realm and civil society.
How do the presidents honored on Mt. Rushmore represent responsible citizenship? Guiding Question(s):
Who are the four Presidents of Mount Rushmore? 2. Where does the President live? 3. Who is the current President of the United States? 4. Who was the First President of the United States? 5. Who is known as the Father of our Country? 6. Who was Thomas Jefferson and why was he an important president? 7. What president was the author of the Declaration of Independence? 8. Who was Abraham Lincoln and why was he an important President of the United States? 9. Why was Abraham Lincoln known as Honest Abe? 10. Why do we consider Theodore Roosevelt to be an important President of the United States? 11. How did Theodore Roosevelt inspire the teddy bear?
Resources & Materials:
BIBLIOGRAPHY Smith, Lane. John, Paul, George & Ben. Scholastic. 2006. ISBN 9780545221672. Rockwell, Anne. Presidents’ Day. Scholastic. 2008. ISBN 9780545140645. Cronin, Doreen. Duck For President. Atheneum Books. 2004. ISBN 9781416958000. Waber, Bernard. Just Like Abraham Lincoln. Scholastic. 1964. ISBN 0590433555. Grimes, Nikki. Barack Obama: Son of Promise, Child of Hope. Simon & Schuster. 2008. ISBN 9781416971443. St. George, Judith. So You Want to Be President? Philomel Books. 2004. ISBN 0399243178. Winters, Kay. Abe Lincoln: The Boy Who Loved Books. Scholastic. 2003. ISBN 0439730678. Murphy, Frank. The Legend of the Teddy Bear. Sleeping Bear Press. 2000. ISBN 1585360139. Turner, Ann. When Mr. Jefferson Came to Philadelphia: What I Learned of Freedom, 1776. Harper Collins. 2003. ISBN 0060275790. Brown, Don. Teedie: The Story of Young Teddy Roosevelt. Houghton Mifflin. 2009. ISBN 0618179992 Alder, David A. A Picture Book of George Washington. Holiday House, 1989. ISBN 0-8234-0800-0. Alder, David A. A Picture Book of Thomas Jefferson. Holiday House, 1989. Alder, David A. A Picture Book of Abraham Lincoln. Holiday House, 1989. Brenner, Martha. Abe Lincoln’s Hat. Scholastic, 1994. ISBN 0-590-62187-4. F. Brown, Marc. Arthur Meets The President. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1991. ISBN 0-316-11265-8. Murphy, Frank. George Washington and the General’s Dog. Random House, 2002. ISBN 0-375-81015-3.
Learning Opportunities, Activities, & Procedures:
DAY ONE: 40 MINUTES
Introduction to Mt. Rushmore
1. Seat the students on the floor for a class discussion. 2. Ask the students if they have ever heard the word President. 3. Ask the students if they know who the President is. Many students may have heard the word, and some may even know what it means. 4. Clarify with the students that the President is the leader of our country. 5. Ask the students to name any of the Presidents that they know. Ask the students if they know the name of the current President. Explain to the students that we have had over 40 Presidents. 6. Say: Many of our Presidents did wonderful things for our country. We are going to be learning about four of the most famous Presidents. 7. Before continuing, have students help you fill out a page on the SMART Board. 8. Open a new page and write the heading: What We Know About Presidents. Ask students: What do you already know about the Presidents? 9. Allow students time to respond. As the students are responding, record their answers in a brainstorm fashion. 10. After students have completed the first page, save it and open a new page with the heading: What We Want To Know About Presidents. Ask students: What do you still want to know about the Presidents. 11. Allow students time to respond. As the students are responding, record their answers on the second page. 12. Say: Now we are going to learn about four famous Presidents. 13. Read Who Carved the Mountain?: The Story of Mt. Rushmore by Jean L. S. Patrick. 14. After reading, ask the students: a. How do we remember people and the good things they did? Statues, streets or buildings named after people, postage stamps, coins. b. Explain to the students that this is one way we honor or thank people. 15. Next, discuss with students why it is important to honor great heroes of our past. Some possible discussion questions are: a. Why do we need to honor great heroes of our past? b. What would happen if we did not honor those people? c. Who are some heroes from our past that we still honor today? d. Are all of the people that we honor Presidents? e. Does someone have to be a President to be honored? 16. After the discussion, ask the students the following review questions: a. Who are the Mount Rushmore Presidents? George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson b. Why were these Presidents carved into Mount Rushmore? To honor or thank them because they were important Presidents, and we should be thankful to them c. Who is our President today? Current President’s name 17. Ask the students if they know where the President lives? Say: We are going to read about where the President lives. 18. Read See Inside the White House by Marge Kennedy. 19. After reading the book, have students sit at desks or tables to do seat work. 20. Pass out one copy of Appendix A per student. 21. Read the top portion of the paper to the students. 25. Say: The President is the leader of our country. He helps make our laws. He lives and works in the White House. 23. Say: In the box, I want you to draw a picture of the President. At the bottom of the page, I would like you to write our President’s name. Who can tell us his name? 24. Allow students to answer. Write the President’s name on the board for students to copy. 25. Say: On the back of your paper, I want you to draw a picture of the home you live in and the school where you work. 26. Allow students to begin working. 27. Collect papers when all of the students are finished working.
Assessment/Evaluation 1. Appendix A – The President 2. Appendix B – Checklist for Appendix A
DAY TWO: 40 MINUTES
1. Seat students on the floor for a class discussion. 2. Say: Would anyone like to add something to the third page of President’s pages?. Allow students to add to the page headed: “What We Learned About Presidents”. 3. As the students are responding, record their answers using a marker. 4. Say: Today we are going to focus on our first President of the United States. This President’s picture is on the quarter and the dollar bill. Show students an example of each. Remind students that putting someone’s picture on money or coins in another way of honoring that person. Can anyone tell me who that would be? Allow students time to respond. 5. That’s right! George Washington was our first President. Does anyone already know something about George Washington that they would like to share? 6. Allow students time to respond. 7. Say: We are going to learn about George Washington and why he is called the Father of Our Country. 8. Read A Picture Book of George Washington by David Adler. 9. Following the story, have a class discussion with the students. Some possible discussion questions are: a. What are some of the similarities between the way we learn in school and the way George Washington learned in school? b. Would you rather be a surveyor or a soldier? Explain your answer. c. What does the story about moving the log say about what kind of person George Washington was? Was he a good man? Was he an honest man? d. What was Washington’s job before he was a soldier? A surveyor. e. Why is George Washington called the Father of Our Country? He led our army and won the fight for freedom. George Washington was chosen by the people to be the first President of the United States. 10. Say: The story about George Washington moving the log shows that he was helpful. I am going to read to you another story about how helpful and honest George Washington was. 11. Read George Washington and the General’s Dog by Frank Murphy. 12. After reading the story, say: Does this story tell you more about the type of man that George Washington was? Accept all answers. 13. Say: If you were President, what type of a person would you like to be? Accept all answers. 14. Have students sit at desks or tables to do seat work. Pass out one copy of Appendix B to each student. 15. Tell students that they are going to complete the sentence on the page. 16. Say: The sentence says “If I were President”. I want you to think about what you would do or how you would act if you were President. Can anyone give me an example of what his or her sentence could say? 17. Allow students time to respond. If none of the students respond, give the students some examples. 18. Allow students to begin working. If students need help with their sentence, you may choose to write words or sentences on the board to help them. 19. Collect papers when all of the students are finished working.
Assessment/Evaluation Appendix C – George Washington
DAY THREE: 40 MINUTES
1. Seat the students on the floor for a class discussion. 2. Remind students that bills and coins of the United States often honor famous people. Show students a nickel that depicts Thomas Jefferson on one side and his home, Monticello, on the other side. 3. Ask students if anyone would like to add anything to the SMART Board page. 4. Say: Is there anyone who would like to add something to the third page in our President’s folder? 5. Allow students time to respond. As students are responding, record their answers in the last column of the chart using a marker. 6. Say: Today we are going to learn about another important American President, Thomas Jefferson. 7. Read When Mr. Jefferson Came to Philadelphia by Ann Turner. 8. After reading the story, have a class discussion with the students. Some possible discussion questions are: a. What birthday was most important to Thomas Jefferson? His country’s birthday b. On what day do we celebrate our country’s birthday? Fourth of July c. What do you like to do to celebrate the Fourth of July? Accept all answers d. Why do you think Thomas Jefferson was a popular President? Accept all answers e. What is one of the most important things Thomas Jefferson is remembered for? Writing the Declaration of Independence f. What did the Declaration of Independence tell the king of England? Why America had decided to become it’s own country g. Why is the Fourth of July called America’s birthday? It’s the day when the people approved the Declaration of Independence 9. Read A Picture Book of Thomas Jefferson by David Alder. 10. Remind the students that Thomas Jefferson wrote one of America’s most famous papers, the Declaration of Independence. Tell the students that the Declaration of Independence was like a list of rules. 11. Say: We are going to do as project as a class today. We are going to write our own declaration for our classroom. 12. Show students the chart paper labeled “Our Classroom Declaration”. 13. Explain to the students that a declaration is like a list of rules. Jefferson also wrote a list of ten rules for leading a good life. Discuss the rules that are listed below with the students and ask them to give examples of how they could follow these rules. a. Never put off for tomorrow what you can do today. b. Never trouble another for what you can do yourself. c. When angry, count to ten before you speak; if very angry, count to 100. 14. Discuss the meaning of these rules with the students. Tell the students that they are now going to come up with rules for the classroom. 15. Say: We will start with a rough draft, and we will write down everyone’s ideas. Then we will vote on the best rules and narrow it down to ten rules. I will then re-write the final choices on another piece of chart paper. 16. Using a marker, begin writing down the student’s ideas for a classroom declaration. Ideas should revolve around the classroom atmosphere, such as respect, sharing, involving everyone, etc. 17. Allow all students to respond. Do not turn down any idea. 18. After all students have responded, read all ideas to the class. 19. Say: Now we are going to vote. I want you to vote for your five favorites. 20. Read each statement again, and allow students to vote. 21. After reading and voting on each item, tell the children which ones will become the classroom declaration. 22. Re-write the top ten ideas on a new piece of chart paper. 23. After lesson, fill out Appendix D, anecdotal notes.
Assessment/Evaluation Appendix D – Anecdotal Notes
DAY FOUR: 40 MINUTES
1. Seat students on the floor for a class discussion. 2. Ask students if anyone would like to add something to the President’s SMART Board page. 3. Say: Did anyone learn something new yesterday? Would anyone like to add something to the learned page? 4. Allow students time to respond. As the students are responding, record the student’s answers in the last column of the chart using a marker. 5. Say: Today we are going to learn about a very important President. He was known as Honest Abe. Show students a penny and a five-dollar bill. Can anyone tell me the name of this President? 6. Allow students time to respond. 7. Say: That’s right! Today we will be learning more about Abraham Lincoln. Does anyone already know something about Abe Lincoln and would like to share it with the class? 8. Allow students time to share. 9. Read the book Abe Lincoln: The Boy Who Loved Books by Kay Winters. 10. After reading the story, have a class discussion. Some possible discussion questions are: a. What would life be like in you lived in a log cabin? Accept all answers; remind students that this was before the days of electricity and power tools. b. Why was Abraham Lincoln called Honest Abe? Because once he walked several miles to give back a few pennies to someone who had paid him too much; he admitted that he had damaged a book about George Washington. c. Name three chores that Abe Lincoln did as a child. Chopped wood, built fires, carried water, planted crops. d. What words would you use to describe Abraham Lincoln? Accept all answers; possible answers would be honest, hardworking, a good speaker. 11. Say: One thing that is famous about Abraham Lincoln is his tall black hat. Now I am going to read you a story about Lincoln and his hat. 12. Read Abe Lincoln’s Hat by Martha Brenner. 13. After reading the story, discuss the part of the story that told about Abe Lincoln carrying important papers in his hat. 14. Say: What if you had a hat like Abraham Lincoln’s? What do you think you would carry in your hat? 15. Allow students time to respond. 16. Have students sit at desks or tables for seatwork. 17. Pass out one copy of Appendix E to each student. 18. Explain to students that they are going to draw a picture inside of the outline of Abraham Lincoln’s hat. 19. Say: Think about something that you would carry in your hat. Then, draw that item inside the hat. After you have drawn your picture, I want you to complete the sentence at the top of the page. 20. The first part of the sentence says, “In my hat I would carry”. If you need help sounding out your words, please raise your hand. 21. Allow students to begin working. If students need help completing their sentence, you may choose to write words on the board. 22. Collect student’s papers when they are finished working.
1. Appendix E – Abe Lincoln’s Hat 2. Appendix F – Rubric for Abe Lincoln’s Hat
DAY FIVE: 40 MINUTES
1. Note to teacher: It would be fun to allow students to bring their teddy bears to school with them on the day you talk about Teddy Roosevelt. 2. Seat students on the floor for a class discussion. 3. Ask students if anyone has anything to add to the President’s SMART Board page. 4. Say: Does anyone have anything that they would like to add to the “learned” page in our President’s folder? 5. Allow time for students to respond. As students are responding, record their responses on the third page in the folder. 6. Say: Today we are going to learn about the last President on Mount Rushmore. 7. Show students a teddy bear. Ask students to identify it by name. 8. Say: Today you will learn about the fourth President on Mount Rushmore, Theodore Roosevelt, who gave the teddy bear its name. 9. Read the book Teedie: The Story of Young Teddy Roosevelt by Don Brown. 10. After reading, have a class discussion with the students. Some possible discussion questions are: a. Why do you think Teddy Roosevelt said he had no idea how beautiful the world was until after he got his eyeglasses? He could not see as well without his eyeglasses. b. Who were the “Rough Riders”? A group of soldiers in the war against Spain. c. What did Theodore Roosevelt like to do outdoors? Walking, learn about nature, watch birds and wild animals, learn how they animals lived. d. What special rule did Theodore Roosevelt make about large areas of land? He made a law that said on special land, people could no longer cut down any trees or kill any birds. e. What were some of Theodore Roosevelt’s health problems when he was a child? Often sick, difficulty breathing, couldn’t see well. f. How did the teddy bear get its name? From President Roosevelt’s decision not to shoot an injured bear. 11. Discuss with the students Teddy Roosevelt’s love for the outdoors and for animals. 12. Say: It was because of Teddy Roosevelt’s love for animals that he decided not to shoot the injured bear. And then the teddy bear was named after him. 13. Ask students to think about something that they really like or enjoy. Maybe they love horses, baseball, reading, etc. 14. Tell students that they are going to create a bear to be named after them. For example, if Tim loves baseball, his bear should be holding a ball and bat. He could name it the Timmy Bear. 15. Have students sit at desks or tables for seatwork. 16. Pass out one copy of Appendix G to each student. 17. Say: I want you to think about something that you really love and enjoy. Teddy Roosevelt really enjoyed the outdoors and the animals. 18. Now, I want you to draw a picture of what it is that you love becoming a part of your bear. 19. After you have colored in your drawing, start thinking about how it could be named after you. If you need help, please raise your hand. 20. Allow students to begin working. 21. Collect student’s papers when they have finished working.
1. Appendix G – My New Bear 2. Appendix H – Checklist for My New Bear
DAY SIX: 40 MINUTES
A. Lincoln or Washington – Using the picture cards on Appendix I, copy one of each card for each student. Pass out the cards to the students. Say short statements about each President, and ask the students to hold up the patriotic bear card for George Washington and the log cabin card for Abraham Lincoln. They can hold up both cards if the statement tells about both Presidents. Some possible statements are: lived long ago, was a lawyer, was a leader of the Army, called the Father of Our Country, was born in a log cabin, was a President, walked miles to borrow books, was honest, liked math. B. Unit Test
Assessment/Evaluation 1. Appendix I: Lincoln or Washington Picture Cards 2. Appendix J: Unit Test 3. Appendix K: Unit Test Key
Instructional & Environmental Modifications:
Not every classroom is equipped with a SMART Board- you can easily substitute a standard KWL chart. Assessment(s) & Scoring Criteria:
Standard Being Addressed
Specific Performance Indicator
EfS B:Responsible Local and Global Citizenship
B1: 1. Articulate the rights and responsibilities of democratic participation and leadership in both local and global contexts.
All Core Content
all listed content
Honor – to recognize, appreciate, thank Honest – to be truthful