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Athabasca University ESL Course

Athabasca University ESL, Unit 11: How and Why?

Lesson 82: REASON & CONSEQUENCE

Here are some ways to connect two ideas when one idea is the cause (the reason why) and the other is the result (the consequence).

1

BASIC SENTENCE because + REASON

It was difficult to follow him because he spoke very fast.
We put on lots of clothes because it was very cold.

Two other ways of saying because are as and since. We can use all of them before the basic sentence, too:

Because he spoke fast, it was difficult to follow him.
As it was very cold, we put on lots of clothes.


2

BASIC SENTENCE so + CONSEQUENCE

Nobody answered the door, so I left a message and went away.
It was very cold, so we put on lots of clothes.

NOTICE: Because + REASON and so + CONSEQUENCE cannot make sentences alone. They must have a basic sentence with them.


3

REASON As a result + CONSEQUENCE

The weather was terrible. As a result, the train was late.
He spoke very fast. As a result, we couldn't follow.

Two other ways of writing as a result are consequently and therefore. We use all of them mainly in writing.

BUT WE CANNOT USE As a result for consequences of personal decision. For example, the sentences in 2 above.


4

so + ADJECTIVE or ADVERB + that + CONSEQUENCE

He spoke so fast that nobody could understand him.
It was so cold that I couldn't feel my hands or feet.

such + NOUN PHRASE + that + CONSEQUENCE

He was such a fast speaker that nobody could understand him.
It was such cold weather that I couldn't feel my hands.

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