Copies of The Declaration of Independence, pens, pencils and paper.


  • The student will examine argumentation and develop informed opinions.
  • Students will use argumentation for:
    • addressing the concerns of the opposition
    • using logical strategies and sophisticated techniques
    • developing a sense of completion

acquiesce, assent, despotism, expunge, formidable, incite, inherent, inalienable, unremitting, usurpation



1. Review the structure of argument introduced in Lesson 2.

2. Begin this lesson with a general discussion of what students already know about The Declaration of Independence. This discussion could be guided by a Know-Want To Know-Learned chart.

3. Introduce Using Rhetorical Strategies for Persuasion as fit for your class needs. You could present the information on an overhead for note taking or distribute a condensed form of this document in a handout. Emphasize the importance of recognizing ethos, pathos and logs in an argument.

4. Ask students to take a sheet of their own paper and divide it into three columns. Write the words "Ethos," "Pathos," and "Logos" at the top of the paper, one per column.

5. Read the document aloud or ask for a student volunteer, guiding students to look for instances of ethos, pathos and logos in the document.

6. Ask students to read the piece again silently, filling in the chart to the best of their abilities.

7. When students have finished, ask for volunteers to share their charts.

8. Then, ask students to turn the charts over and brainstorm counter-arguments for Jefferson's claims. What would the King of England say in response? Students must use rhetorical strategies that counter Jefferson's argument and they must be able to explain the use of those strategies.

9. Divide students into groups and ask them to write a one-page response from the King of England. Present to class.


The chart can be take up for a daily grade. Students can be evaluated for their comprehension and completion of the king's response.


"KWL Chart." 2009. Teachnology. 23 July 2009.

"Using Rhetorical Strategies for Persuasion." The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University. 2009. Purdue University. 23 July 2009.

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