Lesson 24: PRESENT PERFECT FORMATION

We use the present tense of the auxiliary verb have (Lesson 17) before the past participle form (Lesson 14).

In the simple formation, the participle is the lexical verb (Lesson 3); in the continuous formation, the participle is been, with the -ing form of the lexical verb after it.

Simple (have + past participle)

STATEMENTS

EXAMPLES:
He has worked very hard this term.
The meeting has not started yet.
I have rented a car for two weeks.
They haven't fixed the car yet.

QUESTIONS


EXAMPLES:
Have
you finished yet?
What has she decided to do?
Why have they left?

NOTICE: For spelling problems with the -ing form of the verb, look at Lesson 92.


Continuous (have been -ing form)

STATEMENTS

EXAMPLES:
I have been learning English for four years.
He has not been feeling very well lately.
It's been raining non-stop for days.

QUESTIONS

EXAMPLES:
Have
you been working hard recently?
What's she been doing?
Why has it been raining so much?


Notes on past participles

Many verbs do not have an -ed participle (Lessons 10 and 11).


Have can be an AUXILIARY and a LEXICAL verb (Lesson 3).


EXAMPLES:
Have
the girls had lunch yet?
We have been having a good time.

Go has two past participles


EXAMPLES:
He has gone to Rome. [not here now]
He has been to Rome. [went and returned]

NOTICE: Lesson 25 tells you about the use of present perfect.

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