We can use short answers to answer (1) questions which ask for 'yes' or 'no' and (2) subject questions (Lesson 10). The verb of a short answer contains only the first auxiliary (Lesson 3).

With the verb be


[Q] Are they students?
[A] Yes, they are.

[Q] Is he at home?
[A] No, he is not.

[Q] Who was the winner?
[A] John was.

With present and past simple (Lessons 19, 21)

[Q] Does he drive a Mercedes?
[A] No, he doesn't.

[Q] Did John meet Maria at the airport?
[A] Yes, he did.

[Q] Who gave you all that money?
[A] My father did. NOT my father gave

[Q] Who lives in that house?
[A] John does. NOT John lives

NOTICE: Question: Does he drive a Mercedes?

Yes, he does.
Yes, he drives a Mercedes.

Yes, he drives.
Yes, he does drive.

With other verb formations

[Q] Are they having a party?
[A] Yes, they are.

[Q] Will Canada win the World Cup?
[A] No, they won't. (will not)

[Q] Have you been working hard?
[A] No, I haven't.

[Q] Who has got a light green car?
[A] John has.

NOTICE: We normally use the short form of not (n't) in short answers.

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