Introduction: Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Cut out and laminate Vocabulary Cards for display in the classroom; (2) Photocopy Map of Native American Nations onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (3) Photocopy Pacific Northwest Nation onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (4) Photocopy and assemble Book of Native American Nations (1 per student).
Group Size: Whole Class
Students will be able to:
· Use a map to locate where Pacific Northwest Native Americans lived.
· Explain how Pacific Northwest Native Americans met their basic needs with natural resources.
Materials: Vocabulary Cards (see attachment), Map of Native American Nations (see attachment), Pacific Northwest Nation (see attachment), Book of Native American Nations (see attachment), overheard projector, pointer.
1. Display Map of Native American Nations on overheard projector. Tell students: Yesterday, we learned that Native Americans settled in many different areas after they arrived in North America. Does anybody remember what we call the different groups of Native Americans? Give students a chance to answer nations. Display vocabulary card “nations”.
2. Tell students: The first Native American nation we are going to learn about is Pacific Northwest. Call a volunteer up to the map to point to the Pacific Northwest. Display vocabulary card “Pacific Northwest”.
3. Display vocabulary card “needs”. Ask students: Do you remember what needs are? What are our needs? Take student answers and compile a list of three needs on the board (food, clothing, shelter).
4. Now ask students: Do you think the Pacific Northwest Native Americans had the same needs that we have today? Take a class vote, and then tell students: Yes they did.
5. Tell students: Let’s think about shelter. If the Pacific Northwest Native Americans wanted to build a house, do you think they could go to a hardware store to buy a hammer, nails and wood to make their house? Give students time share thoughts. Then ask: If they couldn’t go to a store, what did they use to build their houses? Guide students to answer wood from trees.
6. Display Pacific Northwest Nation on overhead projector, and show students the Longhouse pictures, keeping the other pictures covered. Tell students: The Pacific Northwest Native Americans were very good woodworkers. They used cedar trees to make things, because that was the kind of tree available in their environment. Their houses were called longhouses. They even used nails made of wood to build. Ask students: Why do you think they were called longhouses? Give students time to share responses. Review with students: What were longhouses made from?
7. Ask students: What do you notice attached to the house in the second picture? Give students time to share, and guide them to answer totem pole. Tell students: The Pacific Northwest Nation constructed totem poles out of wood. They are decorated with family symbols and tell visitors to what family the house belongs and about the family rank. Display picture of the totem pole from Pacific Northwest Nation on the overheard projector. Give students time to share observations.
8. Ask students: Does anybody have an idea of what the Pacific Northwest Nation ate? Think about the area they lived. What is it near? Guide students to answer they ate fish because they live near the ocean. Tell students: The ocean was a very important part of their everyday life. They used the ocean to get all of their food. They ate things such as salmon and whales. Display picture of food from Pacific Northwest Nation on the overheard projector. Give students time to share observations.
9. Ask students: Now we know what the Pacific Northwest Nation did for shelter and food. What other need is there? Guide students to answer clothing. Ask students: What do you think they did for clothing? Give students time to share ideas. Tell students: The Pacific Northwest Nation carved clothing out of cedar trees; the same trees they used to make their houses and totem poles. They carved hats out of bark to shield them from rain and wind. They also wore necklaces with clamshells and beaver teeth on them. Display picture of clothing from Pacific Northwest Nation on the overheard projector. Give students time to share observations.
10. Tell students: We have learned that the Pacific Northwest Nation used trees, the ocean, and animals to meet their needs. These are all natural resources. Display vocabulary card “natural resource”. Explain to students: Natural resources are things people use from the land. Wood was a natural resource, because it came from the land and the Native Americans used it to build homes and make clothing.
11. Ask students: Do you think wood is still a natural resource for us today? Guide students to answer yes because we still use wood to build our buildings.
12. Tell students: You have learned a lot of information about the Pacific Northwest Nation. Now you are going to get your very own book to record all of it. Distribute Book of Native American Nations to each student. Instruct students to put their names on the covers and then to complete page one. At the bottom of the page instruct students to write one thing they learned in a complete sentence. Leave Pacific Northwest Nation displayed on the overheard projector for students to see while working.
13. Collect books for use the following day.
Modifications: For students with special needs, provided one-on-one assistance with writing as necessary.
Assessment: Teacher should circulate classroom to ensure students are writing and drawing correct answers.
Benchmark or Standards:
National Council for the Social Studies Standards
I. Culture and Cultural Diversity
a. Explore and describe similarities and differences in the in the ways groups, societies, and cultures address similar human needs and concerns.
d. Compare ways in which people from cultures think about and deal with their physical environment and social conditions.
III. People Places and Environments
b. Interpret, use, and distinguish various representations of the earth, such as maps, globes,
h. Examine the interaction of human beings and their physical environment, the use of land,
building of cities, and ecosystem changes in selected locales and regions.