The Founders listed several rights guaranteed to the people in the first eight amendments of the Bill of Rights. They did not believe that this list was all encompassing, so they included the Ninth Amendment as a way to protect the rights of the people that were not listed in the first Eight. This lessons explores the nature of these unnamed rights and examines the arguments around who should interpret them, judges or the people.
Handout A: How Does the Constitution Protect Liberty? (Background Essay)
Handout B: Pierce v. Society of Sisters (1925) Brief
Handout C: Pierce v. Society of Sisters (1925) Unanimous Opinion
Handout D: Newspaper Story Guideline
Primary Source Appendices
Founding Principles for ELL
Vocabulary Scaffolding for ELL