This collection of gravitation lessons were developed by Dr. Carl Pennypacker and his colleagues at UC Berkeley to use with middle and high school students.

## Collection Contents

### Gravity pre and post test

by Kathleen Duhl

A pre and post test on gravitation and orbital motion.
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### Quantifying The Force of Gravity at the Earth’s Surface (Lab)

by Kathleen Duhl

Students will perform a simple lab involving the use of a spring scale and various masses to determine the strength of the gravitational field strength at the surface of the earth (9.8N/Kg). The influence of varying mass on the strength of gravitational forces is explored as one step toward the ultimate goal of constructing Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. Follow up activities will provide the opportunity to explore the exact influence of distance on gravitational forces and to calculate the value of the Gravitational Constant, G.
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### Student Activity: Light Intensity & Distance

by Kathleen Duhl

In this student activity students will determine how light intensity from a point source changes as you move farther from the light source. They will relate the patterns observed in the spreading of light to the patterns observed in the “spread” of gravity’s influence into space and develop a general mathematical understanding of how gravity’s influence changes as you increase the distance between two masses.
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### Gravity throughout the solar system

by Kathleen Duhl

Questions for students to think about and answer.
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### Cavendish's Experiment and the Determination of G

by Kathleen Duhl

This lesson explains Cavendish's experiment and the determination of G.
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### Marbles in orbit: student lab

by Kathleen Duhl

Can we predict the direction the Moon would travel if the force of the gravity were to suddenly disappear?
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### My solar system simulation

by Kathleen Duhl

The orbital simulator is one of many simulations available on the PhET project out of the University of Colorado. The web site is http://phet.colorado.edu. These simulations can be run online or can be downloaded and opened in a browser that is running offline. The simulation we are using is called My Solar System.
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### Gravity, Newton’s Third Law, and Falling

by Kathleen Duhl

An explanation of Newton's third law.
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### Background reading: moving in circles

by Kathleen Duhl

An article that reinforces the concept of objects that move in circles.
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### Important Physics Concepts

by Kathleen Duhl

A list of important physics concepts to review.
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### Hands on Universe, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley

by Kathleen Duhl

Hands-On Universe™ (HOU) is an educational program that enables students to investigate the Universe while applying tools and concepts from science, math, and technology. Using the Internet, HOU participants around the world request observations from an automated telescope, download images from a large image archive, and analyze them with the aid of user-friendly image processing software.
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