Mathematics Curriculum Framework
November 2000

Learning Standards

Number Sense and Operations
for Grades 11-12

cross symbolUnderstand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems
solid circle symbolUnderstand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another
solid triangle symbolCompute fluently and make reasonable estimates

Learning Standards

Students engage in problem solving, communicating, reasoning, connecting, and representing as they:
12.N.1Define complex numbers (e.g., a + bi) and operations on them, in particular, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Relate the system of complex numbers to the systems of real and rational numbers.
12.N.2Simplify numerical expressions with powers and roots, including fractional and negative exponents.

Exploratory Concepts and Skills
for Grades 11-12 and Single-Subject Courses

  • Investigate special topics in number theory, e.g., the use of prime numbers in cryptography.
  • Use polar-coordinate representations of complex numbers (i.e., a + bi = r(cos? + isin?)) and DeMoivre's theorem to multiply, take roots, and raise numbers to a power.
  • Plot complex numbers using both rectangular and polar coordinate systems.
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