*information presented comes from Earth Science published by Glencoe McGraw-Hill

Mountain Building Notes


 

I. Convergent-Boundary Mountains

A. Orogeny: the processes that form all mountain ranges


 

1. Orogeny results in broad, linear regions of deformations known as orogenic belts
 

2. Most notable belts are found at convergent boundaries
 

B. Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence: when two ocean plates collide


 

1. One ocean plate travels below the other plate toward the mantle causing a subduction zone
 

2. The other ocean plate develops volcanic peaks
 

C. Oceanic-Continental Convergence: when an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate


 

1. The oceanic plate descends toward the mantle
 

2. The continental plate is forced beginning orogeny
 

3. Magma is formed during this process as well
 

D. Continental-Continental Convergence: when two continental plates collide


 

1. Himalayas (Earth's tallest mountain range) are formed at this type of convergence
 

2. Neither plate can be subducted into the mantle
 

3. As the two plates push against one another, they both fold and fault creating mountains
 

II. Other Types of Mountains


 

A. Divergent-Boundary mountains: Ocean ridge mountains form along divergent boundaries


 

B. Nonboundary mountains: mountains forming away from plate boundaries


 

1. Uplifted mountains

a. form when large regions of Earth are slowly forced upward as a unit

b. cause of regional uplift is not well understood

c. Example: Adirondack Mountains of New York

 

2. Fault-Block mountains

a. form when large pieces of crust are tilted, uplifted, or dropped downward between large faults

b. Example: Grand Tetons in Wyoming

 

3. Volcanic Peaks

a. volcanoes that form over hot spots are usually far from plate boundaries

b. Often a chain of volcanic peaks forms as the plate moves over the hot spot

c. Example: Hawaiian Islands
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