This folder contains 6 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books.

These Chemical Systems chapters are to be used in grades 10 through 12.

Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section.

This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS

18 The Water Cycle - Grade 10

18.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

18.2 The importance of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

18.3 The movement of water through the water cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

18.4 The microscopic structure of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

18.4.1 The polar nature of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

18.4.2 Hydrogen bonding in water molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

18.5 The unique properties of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

18.6 Water conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

18.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366

19 Global Cycles: The Nitrogen Cycle – Grade 10

19.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

19.2 Nitrogen fixation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

19.3 Nitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

19.4 Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

19.5 Human Influences on the Nitrogen Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

19.6 The industrial fixation of nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

19.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

20 The Hydrosphere - Grade 10

20.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

20.2 Interactions of the hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

20.3 Exploring the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378

20.4 The Importance of the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

20.5 Ions in aqueous solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

20.5.1 Dissociation in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

20.5.2 Ions and water hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382

20.5.3 The pH scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382

20.5.4 Acid rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384

20.6 Electrolytes, ionisation and conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

20.6.1 Electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

20.6.2 Non-electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

20.6.3 Factors that affect the conductivity of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

20.7 Precipitation reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

20.8 Testing for common anions in solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

20.8.1 Test for a chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

20.8.2 Test for a sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

20.8.3 Test for a carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392

20.8.4 Test for bromides and iodides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392

20.9 Threats to the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

20.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

21 The Lithosphere - Grade 11

21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

21.2 The chemistry of the earth’s crust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

21.3 A brief history of mineral use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399

21.4 Energy resources and their uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

21.5 Mining and Mineral Processing: Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

21.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

21.5.2 Mining the Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

21.5.3 Processing the gold ore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

21.5.4 Characteristics and uses of gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402

21.5.5 Environmental impacts of gold mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404

21.6 Mining and mineral processing: Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

21.6.1 Iron mining and iron ore processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

21.6.2 Types of iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407

21.6.3 Iron in South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408

21.7 Mining and mineral processing: Phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

21.7.1 Mining phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

21.7.2 Uses of phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

21.8 Energy resources and their uses: Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

21.8.1 The formation of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

21.8.2 How coal is removed from the ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

21.8.3 The uses of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412

21.8.4 Coal and the South African economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412

21.8.5 The environmental impacts of coal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

21.9 Energy resources and their uses: Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

21.9.1 How oil is formed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

21.9.2 Extracting oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

21.9.3 Other oil products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415

21.9.4 The environmental impacts of oil extraction and use . . . . . . . . . . . 415

21.10Alternative energy resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415

21.11Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417

22 The Atmosphere - Grade 11

22.1 The composition of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421

22.2 The structure of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422

22.2.1 The troposphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422

22.2.2 The stratosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422

22.2.3 The mesosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

22.2.4 The thermosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

22.3 Greenhouse gases and global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

22.3.1 The heating of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

22.3.2 The greenhouse gases and global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

22.3.3 The consequences of global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429

22.3.4 Taking action to combat global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430

22.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

23 The Chemical Industry - Grade 12

23.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

23.2 Sasol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

23.2.1 Sasol today: Technology and production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

23.2.2 Sasol and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

23.3 The Chloralkali Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442

23.3.1 The Industrial Production of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide . . . . . . . 442

23.3.2 Soaps and Detergents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

23.4 The Fertiliser Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450

23.4.1 The value of nutrients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450

23.4.2 The Role of fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450

23.4.3 The Industrial Production of Fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451

23.4.4 Fertilisers and the Environment: Eutrophication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454

23.5 Electrochemistry and batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456

23.5.1 How batteries work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456

23.5.2 Battery capacity and energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

23.5.3 Lead-acid batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

23.5.4 The zinc-carbon dry cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

23.5.5 Environmental considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460

23.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

Collection Contents


Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 18, The Water Cycle comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS 18 The Water Cycle - Grade 10 18.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 18.2 The importance of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 18.3 The movement of water through the water cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 18.4 The microscopic structure of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.4.1 The polar nature of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.4.2 Hydrogen bonding in water molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.5 The unique properties of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 18.6 Water conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 18.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
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Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 19, Global Cycles: The Nitrogen Cycle comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS 19 Global Cycles: The Nitrogen Cycle – Grade 10 19.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 19.2 Nitrogen fixation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 19.3 Nitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 19.4 Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 19.5 Human Influences on the Nitrogen Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 19.6 The industrial fixation of nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 19.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
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Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 20, The Hydrosphere comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS 20 The Hydrosphere - Grade 10 20.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 20.2 Interactions of the hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 20.3 Exploring the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 20.4 The Importance of the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 20.5 Ions in aqueous solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 20.5.1 Dissociation in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 20.5.2 Ions and water hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 20.5.3 The pH scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 20.5.4 Acid rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 20.6 Electrolytes, ionisation and conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 20.6.1 Electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 20.6.2 Non-electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 20.6.3 Factors that affect the conductivity of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 20.7 Precipitation reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 20.8 Testing for common anions in solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.1 Test for a chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.2 Test for a sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.3 Test for a carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 20.8.4 Test for bromides and iodides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 20.9 Threats to the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 20.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
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Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 21, The Lithosphere comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS 21 The Lithosphere - Grade 11 21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 21.2 The chemistry of the earth’s crust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 21.3 A brief history of mineral use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 21.4 Energy resources and their uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 21.5 Mining and Mineral Processing: Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.2 Mining the Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.3 Processing the gold ore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.4 Characteristics and uses of gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 21.5.5 Environmental impacts of gold mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 21.6 Mining and mineral processing: Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 21.6.1 Iron mining and iron ore processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 21.6.2 Types of iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 21.6.3 Iron in South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 21.7 Mining and mineral processing: Phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 21.7.1 Mining phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 21.7.2 Uses of phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 21.8 Energy resources and their uses: Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 21.8.1 The formation of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 21.8.2 How coal is removed from the ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 21.8.3 The uses of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 21.8.4 Coal and the South African economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 21.8.5 The environmental impacts of coal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 21.9 Energy resources and their uses: Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 21.9.1 How oil is formed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 21.9.2 Extracting oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 21.9.3 Other oil products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 21.9.4 The environmental impacts of oil extraction and use . . . . . . . . . . . 415 21.10Alternative energy resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 21.11Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
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Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 22, The Atmosphere comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS 22 The Atmosphere - Grade 11 22.1 The composition of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 22.2 The structure of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 22.2.1 The troposphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 22.2.2 The stratosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 22.2.3 The mesosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 22.2.4 The thermosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 22.3 Greenhouse gases and global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 22.3.1 The heating of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 22.3.2 The greenhouse gases and global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 22.3.3 The consequences of global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 22.3.4 Taking action to combat global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 22.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
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Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 23, The Chemical Industry comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS 23 The Chemical Industry - Grade 12 23.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 23.2 Sasol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 23.2.1 Sasol today: Technology and production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 23.2.2 Sasol and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 23.3 The Chloralkali Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 23.3.1 The Industrial Production of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide . . . . . . . 442 23.3.2 Soaps and Detergents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 23.4 The Fertiliser Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 23.4.1 The value of nutrients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 23.4.2 The Role of fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 23.4.3 The Industrial Production of Fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 23.4.4 Fertilisers and the Environment: Eutrophication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 23.5 Electrochemistry and batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 23.5.1 How batteries work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 23.5.2 Battery capacity and energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 23.5.3 Lead-acid batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 23.5.4 The zinc-carbon dry cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 23.5.5 Environmental considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 23.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
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