TABLE OF CONTENTS

Science Collection

Atomic Energy Levels - Video Clips

Chemistry, Grades 10-12, Chemical Change

IN COLLECTION
This folder contains 7 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books.

These Chemical Change chapters are to be used in grades 10 through 12.

Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section.

This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

III CHEMICAL CHANGE

11 Physical and Chemical Change - Grade 10

11.1 Physical changes in matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

11.2 Chemical Changes in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

11.2.1 Decomposition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

11.2.2 Synthesis reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

11.3 Energy changes in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

11.4 Conservation of atoms and mass in reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

11.5 Law of constant composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

11.6 Volume relationships in gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

11.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

12 Representing Chemical Change - Grade 10

12.1 Chemical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

12.2 Writing chemical formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

12.3 Balancing chemical equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

12.3.1 The law of conservation of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

12.3.2 Steps to balance a chemical equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

12.4 State symbols and other information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

12.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

13 Quantitative Aspects of Chemical Change - Grade 11

13.1 The Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

13.2 Molar Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

13.3 An equation to calculate moles and mass in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . 237

13.4 Molecules and compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

13.5 The Composition of Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

13.6 Molar Volumes of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

13.7 Molar concentrations in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

13.8 Stoichiometric calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

13.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

14 Energy Changes In Chemical Reactions - Grade 11

14.1 What causes the energy changes in chemical reactions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

14.2 Exothermic and endothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

14.3 The heat of reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

14.4 Examples of endothermic and exothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

14.5 Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

14.6 Activation energy and the activated complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

14.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

15 Types of Reactions - Grade 11

15.1 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

15.1.1 What are acids and bases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

15.1.2 Defining acids and bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

15.1.3 Conjugate acid-base pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

15.1.4 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

15.1.5 Acid-carbonate reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

15.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

15.2.1 Oxidation and reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

15.2.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

15.3 Addition, substitution and elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

15.3.1 Addition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

15.3.2 Elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

15.3.3 Substitution reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

15.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

16 Reaction Rates - Grade 12

16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

16.2 Factors affecting reaction rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

16.3 Reaction rates and collision theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

16.4 Measuring Rates of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

16.5 Mechanism of reaction and catalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

16.6 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

16.6.1 Open and closed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

16.6.2 Reversible reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

16.6.3 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

16.7 The equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

16.7.1 Calculating the equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

16.7.2 The meaning of kc values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

16.8 Le Chatelier’s principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

16.8.1 The effect of concentration on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

16.8.2 The effect of temperature on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

16.8.3 The effect of pressure on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

16.9 Industrial applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

16.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

17 Electrochemical Reactions - Grade 12

17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

17.2 The Galvanic Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

17.2.1 Half-cell reactions in the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

17.2.2 Components of the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

17.2.3 The Galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

17.2.4 Uses and applications of the galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

17.3 The Electrolytic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

17.3.1 The electrolysis of copper sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

17.3.2 The electrolysis of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

17.3.3 A comparison of galvanic and electrolytic cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

17.4 Standard Electrode Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

17.4.1 The different reactivities of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

17.4.2 Equilibrium reactions in half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

17.4.3 Measuring electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

17.4.4 The standard hydrogen electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

17.4.5 Standard electrode potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

17.4.6 Combining half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

17.4.7 Uses of standard electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338

17.5 Balancing redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

17.6 Applications of electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

17.6.1 Electroplating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

17.6.2 The production of chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

17.6.3 Extraction of aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

17.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

Collection Contents


Chapter 11, Phyiscal and Chemical Change comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS III CHEMICAL CHANGE 11 Physical and Chemical Change - Grade 10 11.1 Physical changes in matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 11.2 Chemical Changes in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 11.2.1 Decomposition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 11.2.2 Synthesis reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 11.3 Energy changes in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 11.4 Conservation of atoms and mass in reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 11.5 Law of constant composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 11.6 Volume relationships in gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 11.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
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Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 12, Representing Chemical Change comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS III CHEMICAL CHANGE 12 Representing Chemical Change - Grade 10 12.1 Chemical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 12.2 Writing chemical formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3 Balancing chemical equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3.1 The law of conservation of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3.2 Steps to balance a chemical equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 12.4 State symbols and other information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 12.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
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Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 13, Quantitative Aspects of Chemical Change comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS III CHEMICAL CHANGE 13 Quantitative Aspects of Chemical Change - Grade 11 13.1 The Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 13.2 Molar Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 13.3 An equation to calculate moles and mass in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . 237 13.4 Molecules and compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 13.5 The Composition of Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 13.6 Molar Volumes of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 13.7 Molar concentrations in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 13.8 Stoichiometric calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 13.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
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Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 14, Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS III CHEMICAL CHANGE 14 Energy Changes In Chemical Reactions - Grade 11 14.1 What causes the energy changes in chemical reactions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 14.2 Exothermic and endothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 14.3 The heat of reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 14.4 Examples of endothermic and exothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 14.5 Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 14.6 Activation energy and the activated complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 14.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
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Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 15, Types of Reactions comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS III CHEMICAL CHANGE 15 Types of Reactions - Grade 11 15.1 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15.1.1 What are acids and bases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15.1.2 Defining acids and bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15.1.3 Conjugate acid-base pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 15.1.4 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 15.1.5 Acid-carbonate reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 15.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 15.2.1 Oxidation and reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 15.2.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 15.3 Addition, substitution and elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 15.3.1 Addition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 15.3.2 Elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 15.3.3 Substitution reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 15.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
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Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 16, Reaction Rates comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS III CHEMICAL CHANGE 16 Reaction Rates - Grade 12 16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 16.2 Factors affecting reaction rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 16.3 Reaction rates and collision theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 16.4 Measuring Rates of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 16.5 Mechanism of reaction and catalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 16.6 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 16.6.1 Open and closed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 16.6.2 Reversible reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 16.6.3 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 16.7 The equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 16.7.1 Calculating the equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 16.7.2 The meaning of kc values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 16.8 Le Chatelier’s principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.1 The effect of concentration on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.2 The effect of temperature on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.3 The effect of pressure on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 16.9 Industrial applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 16.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
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Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 17, Electrochemical Reactions comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS III CHEMICAL CHANGE 17 Electrochemical Reactions - Grade 12 17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 17.2 The Galvanic Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 17.2.1 Half-cell reactions in the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 17.2.2 Components of the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 17.2.3 The Galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 17.2.4 Uses and applications of the galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 17.3 The Electrolytic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 17.3.1 The electrolysis of copper sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 17.3.2 The electrolysis of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 17.3.3 A comparison of galvanic and electrolytic cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 17.4 Standard Electrode Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 17.4.1 The different reactivities of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 17.4.2 Equilibrium reactions in half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 17.4.3 Measuring electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 17.4.4 The standard hydrogen electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 17.4.5 Standard electrode potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 17.4.6 Combining half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 17.4.7 Uses of standard electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 17.5 Balancing redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 17.6 Applications of electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 17.6.1 Electroplating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 17.6.2 The production of chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 17.6.3 Extraction of aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 17.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
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