This folder contains 2 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books.

These chapters come from the Chemistry sub-topic Matters and Material, but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 12.

Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section.

This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

II MATTER AND MATERIALS

9 Organic Molecules - Grade 12

9.1 What is organic chemistry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

9.2 Sources of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

9.3 Unique properties of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

9.4 Representing organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

9.4.1 Molecular formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

9.4.2 Structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

9.4.3 Condensed structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

9.5 Isomerism in organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

9.6 Functional groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

9.7 The Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

9.7.1 The Alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

9.7.2 Naming the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

9.7.3 Properties of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

9.7.4 Reactions of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

9.7.5 The alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

9.7.6 Naming the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

9.7.7 The properties of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

9.7.8 Reactions of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

9.7.9 The Alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

9.7.10 Naming the alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

9.8 The Alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

9.8.1 Naming the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

9.8.2 Physical and chemical properties of the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

9.9 Carboxylic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

9.9.1 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

9.9.2 Derivatives of carboxylic acids: The esters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

9.10 The Amino Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

9.11 The Carbonyl Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

9.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

10 Organic Macromolecules - Grade 12

10.1 Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

10.2 How do polymers form? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

10.2.1 Addition polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

10.2.2 Condensation polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

10.3 The chemical properties of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

10.4 Types of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

10.5 Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

10.5.1 The uses of plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

10.5.2 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

10.5.3 Plastics and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

10.6 Biological Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

10.6.1 Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

10.6.2 Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

10.6.3 Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

10.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

Collection Contents


Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 9, Organic Molecules comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS II MATTER AND MATERIALS 9 Organic Molecules - Grade 12 9.1 What is organic chemistry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 9.2 Sources of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 9.3 Unique properties of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9.4 Representing organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9.4.1 Molecular formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9.4.2 Structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 9.4.3 Condensed structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 9.5 Isomerism in organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 9.6 Functional groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 9.7 The Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 9.7.1 The Alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 9.7.2 Naming the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 9.7.3 Properties of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 9.7.4 Reactions of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 9.7.5 The alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 9.7.6 Naming the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 9.7.7 The properties of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 9.7.8 Reactions of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 9.7.9 The Alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 9.7.10 Naming the alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 9.8 The Alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 9.8.1 Naming the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 9.8.2 Physical and chemical properties of the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 9.9 Carboxylic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 9.9.1 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 9.9.2 Derivatives of carboxylic acids: The esters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.10 The Amino Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.11 The Carbonyl Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
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Click HERE to download the chapter as a PDF. Chapter 10, Organic Macromolecules comes from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this chapter. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS II MATTER AND MATERIALS 10 Organic Macromolecules - Grade 12 10.1 Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 10.2 How do polymers form? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 10.2.1 Addition polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 10.2.2 Condensation polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 10.3 The chemical properties of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 10.4 Types of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 10.5 Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 10.5.1 The uses of plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 10.5.2 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 10.5.3 Plastics and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 10.6 Biological Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 10.6.1 Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 10.6.2 Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 10.6.3 Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 10.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
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