TABLE OF CONTENTS

Science Collection

Atomic Energy Levels - Video Clips

Chemistry, Grade 12 Chapters Only

IN COLLECTION
This folder contains 5 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books.

These chapters come from Chemistry sub-topics such as Matters and Material, Chemical Change, and Chemical Systems but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 12.

Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section.

This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

II MATTER AND MATERIALS

9 Organic Molecules - Grade 12

9.1 What is organic chemistry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

9.2 Sources of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

9.3 Unique properties of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

9.4 Representing organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

9.4.1 Molecular formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

9.4.2 Structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

9.4.3 Condensed structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

9.5 Isomerism in organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

9.6 Functional groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

9.7 The Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

9.7.1 The Alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

9.7.2 Naming the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

9.7.3 Properties of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

9.7.4 Reactions of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

9.7.5 The alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

9.7.6 Naming the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

9.7.7 The properties of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

9.7.8 Reactions of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

9.7.9 The Alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

9.7.10 Naming the alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

9.8 The Alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

9.8.1 Naming the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

9.8.2 Physical and chemical properties of the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

9.9 Carboxylic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

9.9.1 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

9.9.2 Derivatives of carboxylic acids: The esters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

9.10 The Amino Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

9.11 The Carbonyl Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

9.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

10 Organic Macromolecules - Grade 12

10.1 Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

10.2 How do polymers form? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

10.2.1 Addition polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

10.2.2 Condensation polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

10.3 The chemical properties of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

10.4 Types of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

10.5 Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

10.5.1 The uses of plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

10.5.2 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

10.5.3 Plastics and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

10.6 Biological Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

10.6.1 Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

10.6.2 Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

10.6.3 Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

10.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

III CHEMICAL CHANGE

16 Reaction Rates - Grade 12

16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

16.2 Factors affecting reaction rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

16.3 Reaction rates and collision theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

16.4 Measuring Rates of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

16.5 Mechanism of reaction and catalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

16.6 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

16.6.1 Open and closed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

16.6.2 Reversible reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

16.6.3 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

16.7 The equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

16.7.1 Calculating the equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

16.7.2 The meaning of kc values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

16.8 Le Chatelier’s principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

16.8.1 The effect of concentration on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

16.8.2 The effect of temperature on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

16.8.3 The effect of pressure on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

16.9 Industrial applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

16.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

17 Electrochemical Reactions - Grade 12

17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

17.2 The Galvanic Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

17.2.1 Half-cell reactions in the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

17.2.2 Components of the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

17.2.3 The Galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

17.2.4 Uses and applications of the galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

17.3 The Electrolytic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

17.3.1 The electrolysis of copper sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

17.3.2 The electrolysis of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

17.3.3 A comparison of galvanic and electrolytic cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

17.4 Standard Electrode Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

17.4.1 The different reactivities of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

17.4.2 Equilibrium reactions in half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

17.4.3 Measuring electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

17.4.4 The standard hydrogen electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

17.4.5 Standard electrode potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

17.4.6 Combining half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

17.4.7 Uses of standard electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338

17.5 Balancing redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

17.6 Applications of electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

17.6.1 Electroplating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

17.6.2 The production of chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

17.6.3 Extraction of aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

17.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS

23 The Chemical Industry - Grade 12

23.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

23.2 Sasol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

23.2.1 Sasol today: Technology and production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

23.2.2 Sasol and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

23.3 The Chloralkali Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442

23.3.1 The Industrial Production of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide . . . . . . . 442

23.3.2 Soaps and Detergents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

23.4 The Fertiliser Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450

23.4.1 The value of nutrients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450

23.4.2 The Role of fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450

23.4.3 The Industrial Production of Fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451

23.4.4 Fertilisers and the Environment: Eutrophication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454

23.5 Electrochemistry and batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456

23.5.1 How batteries work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456

23.5.2 Battery capacity and energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

23.5.3 Lead-acid batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

23.5.4 The zinc-carbon dry cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

23.5.5 Environmental considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460

23.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

Collection Contents


This folder contains 2 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. These chapters come from the Chemistry sub-topic Matters and Material, but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 12. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS II MATTER AND MATERIALS 9 Organic Molecules - Grade 12 9.1 What is organic chemistry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 9.2 Sources of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 9.3 Unique properties of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9.4 Representing organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9.4.1 Molecular formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9.4.2 Structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 9.4.3 Condensed structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 9.5 Isomerism in organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 9.6 Functional groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 9.7 The Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 9.7.1 The Alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 9.7.2 Naming the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 9.7.3 Properties of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 9.7.4 Reactions of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 9.7.5 The alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 9.7.6 Naming the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 9.7.7 The properties of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 9.7.8 Reactions of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 9.7.9 The Alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 9.7.10 Naming the alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 9.8 The Alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 9.8.1 Naming the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 9.8.2 Physical and chemical properties of the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 9.9 Carboxylic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 9.9.1 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 9.9.2 Derivatives of carboxylic acids: The esters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.10 The Amino Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.11 The Carbonyl Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 10 Organic Macromolecules - Grade 12 10.1 Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 10.2 How do polymers form? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 10.2.1 Addition polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 10.2.2 Condensation polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 10.3 The chemical properties of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 10.4 Types of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 10.5 Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 10.5.1 The uses of plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 10.5.2 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 10.5.3 Plastics and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 10.6 Biological Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 10.6.1 Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 10.6.2 Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 10.6.3 Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 10.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Member Rating
Curriki RatingNR
'NR' - This resource has not been rated

This folder contains 2 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. These chapters come from the Chemistry sub-topic Chemical Change, but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 12. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS III CHEMICAL CHANGE 16 Reaction Rates - Grade 12 16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 16.2 Factors affecting reaction rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 16.3 Reaction rates and collision theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 16.4 Measuring Rates of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 16.5 Mechanism of reaction and catalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 16.6 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 16.6.1 Open and closed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 16.6.2 Reversible reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 16.6.3 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 16.7 The equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 16.7.1 Calculating the equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 16.7.2 The meaning of kc values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 16.8 Le Chatelier’s principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.1 The effect of concentration on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.2 The effect of temperature on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.3 The effect of pressure on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 16.9 Industrial applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 16.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 17 Electrochemical Reactions - Grade 12 17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 17.2 The Galvanic Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 17.2.1 Half-cell reactions in the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 17.2.2 Components of the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 17.2.3 The Galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 17.2.4 Uses and applications of the galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 17.3 The Electrolytic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 17.3.1 The electrolysis of copper sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 17.3.2 The electrolysis of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 17.3.3 A comparison of galvanic and electrolytic cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 17.4 Standard Electrode Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 17.4.1 The different reactivities of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 17.4.2 Equilibrium reactions in half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 17.4.3 Measuring electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 17.4.4 The standard hydrogen electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 17.4.5 Standard electrode potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 17.4.6 Combining half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 17.4.7 Uses of standard electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 17.5 Balancing redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 17.6 Applications of electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 17.6.1 Electroplating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 17.6.2 The production of chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 17.6.3 Extraction of aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 17.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Member Rating
Curriki RatingNR
'NR' - This resource has not been rated

This folder contains 1 chapter from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. This chapter comes from the Chemistry sub-topic Chemical Systems, but covers only a chapter relevant to Grade 12. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS 23 The Chemical Industry - Grade 12 23.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 23.2 Sasol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 23.2.1 Sasol today: Technology and production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 23.2.2 Sasol and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 23.3 The Chloralkali Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 23.3.1 The Industrial Production of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide . . . . . . . 442 23.3.2 Soaps and Detergents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 23.4 The Fertiliser Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 23.4.1 The value of nutrients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 23.4.2 The Role of fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 23.4.3 The Industrial Production of Fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 23.4.4 Fertilisers and the Environment: Eutrophication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 23.5 Electrochemistry and batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 23.5.1 How batteries work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 23.5.2 Battery capacity and energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 23.5.3 Lead-acid batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 23.5.4 The zinc-carbon dry cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 23.5.5 Environmental considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 23.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
Member Rating
Curriki Rating3
On a scale of 0 to 3

Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!

Non-profit Tax ID # 203478467