TABLE OF CONTENTS

Science Collection

Chemistry, Grade 11 Chapters Only

IN COLLECTION
This folder contains 10 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books.

These chapters come from Chemistry sub-topics such as Matters and Material, Chemical Change, and Chemical Systems but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 11.

Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section.

This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

II MATTER AND MATERIALS

4 Atomic Combinations - Grade 11

4.1 Why do atoms bond? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

4.2 Energy and bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

4.3 What happens when atoms bond? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

4.4 Covalent Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

4.4.1 The nature of the covalent bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

4.5 Lewis notation and molecular structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

4.6 Electronegativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

4.6.1 Non-polar and polar covalent bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

4.6.2 Polar molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

4.7 Ionic Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

4.7.1 The nature of the ionic bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

4.7.2 The crystal lattice structure of ionic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

4.7.3 Properties of Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

4.8 Metallic bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

4.8.1 The nature of the metallic bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

4.8.2 The properties of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

4.9 Writing chemical formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

4.9.1 The formulae of covalent compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

4.9.2 The formulae of ionic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

4.10 The Shape of Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

4.10.1 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory . . . . . . . . . . 82

4.10.2 Determining the shape of a molecule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

4.11 Oxidation numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

4.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

5 Intermolecular Forces - Grade 11

5.1 Types of Intermolecular Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

5.2 Understanding intermolecular forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

5.3 Intermolecular forces in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

5.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

6 Solutions and solubility - Grade 11

6.1 Types of solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

6.2 Forces and solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

6.3 Solubility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

6.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

7 Atomic Nuclei - Grade 11

7.1 Nuclear structure and stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

7.2 The Discovery of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

7.3 Radioactivity and Types of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

7.3.1 Alpha (_) particles and alpha decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

7.3.2 Beta (_) particles and beta decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

7.3.3 Gamma () rays and gamma decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

7.4 Sources of radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

7.4.1 Natural background radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

7.4.2 Man-made sources of radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

7.5 The ’half-life’ of an element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

7.6 The Dangers of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

7.7 The Uses of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

7.8 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

7.8.1 The Atomic bomb - an abuse of nuclear fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

7.8.2 Nuclear power - harnessing energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

7.9 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

7.10 Nucleosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

7.10.1 Age of Nucleosynthesis (225 s - 103 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

7.10.2 Age of Ions (103 s - 1013 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

7.10.3 Age of Atoms (1013 s - 1015 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

7.10.4 Age of Stars and Galaxies (the universe today) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

7.11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

8 Thermal Properties and Ideal Gases - Grade 11

8.1 A review of the kinetic theory of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

8.2 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and volume of an enclosed gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

8.3 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature of an enclosed gas . . . . . . . . . . . 132

8.4 The relationship between temperature and pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

8.5 The general gas equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

8.6 The ideal gas equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

8.7 Molar volume of gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

8.8 Ideal gases and non-ideal gas behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

8.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

III CHEMICAL CHANGE

13 Quantitative Aspects of Chemical Change - Grade 11

13.1 The Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

13.2 Molar Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

13.3 An equation to calculate moles and mass in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . 237

13.4 Molecules and compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

13.5 The Composition of Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

13.6 Molar Volumes of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

13.7 Molar concentrations in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

13.8 Stoichiometric calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

13.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

14 Energy Changes In Chemical Reactions - Grade 11

14.1 What causes the energy changes in chemical reactions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

14.2 Exothermic and endothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

14.3 The heat of reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

14.4 Examples of endothermic and exothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

14.5 Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

14.6 Activation energy and the activated complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

14.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

15 Types of Reactions - Grade 11

15.1 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

15.1.1 What are acids and bases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

15.1.2 Defining acids and bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

15.1.3 Conjugate acid-base pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

15.1.4 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

15.1.5 Acid-carbonate reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

15.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

15.2.1 Oxidation and reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

15.2.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

15.3 Addition, substitution and elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

15.3.1 Addition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

15.3.2 Elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

15.3.3 Substitution reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

15.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS

21 The Lithosphere - Grade 11

21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

21.2 The chemistry of the earth’s crust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

21.3 A brief history of mineral use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399

21.4 Energy resources and their uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

21.5 Mining and Mineral Processing: Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

21.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

21.5.2 Mining the Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

21.5.3 Processing the gold ore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

21.5.4 Characteristics and uses of gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402

21.5.5 Environmental impacts of gold mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404

21.6 Mining and mineral processing: Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

21.6.1 Iron mining and iron ore processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

21.6.2 Types of iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407

21.6.3 Iron in South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408

21.7 Mining and mineral processing: Phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

21.7.1 Mining phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

21.7.2 Uses of phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

21.8 Energy resources and their uses: Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

21.8.1 The formation of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

21.8.2 How coal is removed from the ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

21.8.3 The uses of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412

21.8.4 Coal and the South African economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412

21.8.5 The environmental impacts of coal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

21.9 Energy resources and their uses: Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

21.9.1 How oil is formed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

21.9.2 Extracting oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

21.9.3 Other oil products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415

21.9.4 The environmental impacts of oil extraction and use . . . . . . . . . . . 415

21.10Alternative energy resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415

21.11Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417

22 The Atmosphere - Grade 11

22.1 The composition of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421

22.2 The structure of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422

22.2.1 The troposphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422

22.2.2 The stratosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422

22.2.3 The mesosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

22.2.4 The thermosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

22.3 Greenhouse gases and global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

22.3.1 The heating of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

22.3.2 The greenhouse gases and global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

22.3.3 The consequences of global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429

22.3.4 Taking action to combat global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430

22.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

Collection Contents


This folder contains 5 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. These chapters come from the Chemistry sub-topic Matters and Material, but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 11. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS II MATTER AND MATERIALS 4 Atomic Combinations - Grade 11 4.1 Why do atoms bond? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4.2 Energy and bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4.3 What happens when atoms bond? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4.4 Covalent Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4.4.1 The nature of the covalent bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4.5 Lewis notation and molecular structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4.6 Electronegativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 4.6.1 Non-polar and polar covalent bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4.6.2 Polar molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4.7 Ionic Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4.7.1 The nature of the ionic bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4.7.2 The crystal lattice structure of ionic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4.7.3 Properties of Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4.8 Metallic bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4.8.1 The nature of the metallic bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4.8.2 The properties of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4.9 Writing chemical formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.9.1 The formulae of covalent compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.9.2 The formulae of ionic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 4.10 The Shape of Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.10.1 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.10.2 Determining the shape of a molecule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.11 Oxidation numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5 Intermolecular Forces - Grade 11 5.1 Types of Intermolecular Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 5.2 Understanding intermolecular forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 5.3 Intermolecular forces in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 5.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 6 Solutions and solubility - Grade 11 6.1 Types of solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 6.2 Forces and solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 6.3 Solubility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 6.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 7 Atomic Nuclei - Grade 11 7.1 Nuclear structure and stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 7.2 The Discovery of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 7.3 Radioactivity and Types of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 7.3.1 Alpha (_) particles and alpha decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 7.3.2 Beta (_) particles and beta decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 7.3.3 Gamma () rays and gamma decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 7.4 Sources of radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 7.4.1 Natural background radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 7.4.2 Man-made sources of radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 7.5 The ’half-life’ of an element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 7.6 The Dangers of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 7.7 The Uses of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 7.8 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 7.8.1 The Atomic bomb - an abuse of nuclear fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 7.8.2 Nuclear power - harnessing energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 7.9 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 7.10 Nucleosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 7.10.1 Age of Nucleosynthesis (225 s - 103 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 7.10.2 Age of Ions (103 s - 1013 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 7.10.3 Age of Atoms (1013 s - 1015 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 7.10.4 Age of Stars and Galaxies (the universe today) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 7.11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 8 Thermal Properties and Ideal Gases - Grade 11 8.1 A review of the kinetic theory of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 8.2 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and volume of an enclosed gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 8.3 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature of an enclosed gas . . . . . . . . . . . 132 8.4 The relationship between temperature and pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 8.5 The general gas equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 8.6 The ideal gas equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 8.7 Molar volume of gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 8.8 Ideal gases and non-ideal gas behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 8.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
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This folder contains 3 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. These chapters come from the Chemistry sub-topic Chemical Change, but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 11. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS III CHEMICAL CHANGE 13 Quantitative Aspects of Chemical Change - Grade 11 13.1 The Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 13.2 Molar Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 13.3 An equation to calculate moles and mass in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . 237 13.4 Molecules and compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 13.5 The Composition of Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 13.6 Molar Volumes of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 13.7 Molar concentrations in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 13.8 Stoichiometric calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 13.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 14 Energy Changes In Chemical Reactions - Grade 11 14.1 What causes the energy changes in chemical reactions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 14.2 Exothermic and endothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 14.3 The heat of reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 14.4 Examples of endothermic and exothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 14.5 Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 14.6 Activation energy and the activated complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 14.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 15 Types of Reactions - Grade 11 15.1 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15.1.1 What are acids and bases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15.1.2 Defining acids and bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15.1.3 Conjugate acid-base pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 15.1.4 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 15.1.5 Acid-carbonate reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 15.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 15.2.1 Oxidation and reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 15.2.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 15.3 Addition, substitution and elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 15.3.1 Addition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 15.3.2 Elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 15.3.3 Substitution reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 15.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
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This folder contains 3 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. These chapters come from the Chemistry sub-topic Chemical Systems, but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 11. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS 21 The Lithosphere - Grade 11 21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 21.2 The chemistry of the earth’s crust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 21.3 A brief history of mineral use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 21.4 Energy resources and their uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 21.5 Mining and Mineral Processing: Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.2 Mining the Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.3 Processing the gold ore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.4 Characteristics and uses of gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 21.5.5 Environmental impacts of gold mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 21.6 Mining and mineral processing: Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 21.6.1 Iron mining and iron ore processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 21.6.2 Types of iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 21.6.3 Iron in South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 21.7 Mining and mineral processing: Phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 21.7.1 Mining phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 21.7.2 Uses of phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 21.8 Energy resources and their uses: Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 21.8.1 The formation of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 21.8.2 How coal is removed from the ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 21.8.3 The uses of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 21.8.4 Coal and the South African economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 21.8.5 The environmental impacts of coal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 21.9 Energy resources and their uses: Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 21.9.1 How oil is formed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 21.9.2 Extracting oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 21.9.3 Other oil products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 21.9.4 The environmental impacts of oil extraction and use . . . . . . . . . . . 415 21.10Alternative energy resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 21.11Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 22 The Atmosphere - Grade 11 22.1 The composition of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 22.2 The structure of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 22.2.1 The troposphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 22.2.2 The stratosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 22.2.3 The mesosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 22.2.4 The thermosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 22.3 Greenhouse gases and global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 22.3.1 The heating of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 22.3.2 The greenhouse gases and global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 22.3.3 The consequences of global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 22.3.4 Taking action to combat global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 22.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
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