This folder contains 7 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books.

These chapters come from Chemistry sub-topics such as Matters and Material, Chemical Change, and Chemical Systems but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 10.

Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section.

This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

II MATTER AND MATERIALS

1 Classification of Matter - Grade 10

1.1 Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.1.1 Heterogeneous mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.1.2 Homogeneous mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.1.3 Separating mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.2 Pure Substances: Elements and Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.2.1 Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.2.2 Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.3 Giving names and formulae to substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.4 Metals, Semi-metals and Non-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1.4.1 Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1.4.2 Non-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.4.3 Semi-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.5 Electrical conductors, semi-conductors and insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.6 Thermal Conductors and Insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

1.7 Magnetic and Non-magnetic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

1.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2 What are the objects around us made of? - Grade 10

2.1 Introduction: The atom as the building block of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.2 Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.2.1 Representing molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.3 Intramolecular and intermolecular forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.4 The Kinetic Theory of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

2.5 The Properties of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

2.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3 The Atom - Grade 10

3.1 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

3.1.1 The Plum Pudding Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

3.1.2 Rutherford’s model of the atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

3.1.3 The Bohr Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3.2 How big is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.2.1 How heavy is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.2.2 How big is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.3 Atomic structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.3.1 The Electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.3.2 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.4 Atomic number and atomic mass number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

3.5 Isotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

3.5.1 What is an isotope? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

3.5.2 Relative atomic mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

3.6 Energy quantisation and electron configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

3.6.1 The energy of electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

3.6.2 Energy quantisation and line emission spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

3.6.3 Electron configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

3.6.4 Core and valence electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

3.6.5 The importance of understanding electron configuration . . . . . . . . . 51

3.7 Ionisation Energy and the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

3.7.1 Ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

3.7.2 Ionisation Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

3.8 The Arrangement of Atoms in the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

3.8.1 Groups in the periodic table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

3.8.2 Periods in the periodic table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

3.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

III CHEMICAL CHANGE

11 Physical and Chemical Change - Grade 10

11.1 Physical changes in matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

11.2 Chemical Changes in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

11.2.1 Decomposition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

11.2.2 Synthesis reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

11.3 Energy changes in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

11.4 Conservation of atoms and mass in reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

11.5 Law of constant composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

11.6 Volume relationships in gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

11.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

12 Representing Chemical Change - Grade 10

12.1 Chemical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

12.2 Writing chemical formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

12.3 Balancing chemical equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

12.3.1 The law of conservation of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

12.3.2 Steps to balance a chemical equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

12.4 State symbols and other information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

12.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS

18 The Water Cycle - Grade 10

18.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

18.2 The importance of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

18.3 The movement of water through the water cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

18.4 The microscopic structure of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

18.4.1 The polar nature of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

18.4.2 Hydrogen bonding in water molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

18.5 The unique properties of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

18.6 Water conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

18.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366

19 Global Cycles: The Nitrogen Cycle – Grade 10

19.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

19.2 Nitrogen fixation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

19.3 Nitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

19.4 Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

19.5 Human Influences on the Nitrogen Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

19.6 The industrial fixation of nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

19.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

20 The Hydrosphere - Grade 10

20.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

20.2 Interactions of the hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

20.3 Exploring the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378

20.4 The Importance of the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

20.5 Ions in aqueous solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

20.5.1 Dissociation in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

20.5.2 Ions and water hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382

20.5.3 The pH scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382

20.5.4 Acid rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384

20.6 Electrolytes, ionisation and conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

20.6.1 Electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

20.6.2 Non-electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

20.6.3 Factors that affect the conductivity of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

20.7 Precipitation reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

20.8 Testing for common anions in solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

20.8.1 Test for a chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

20.8.2 Test for a sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

20.8.3 Test for a carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392

20.8.4 Test for bromides and iodides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392

20.9 Threats to the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

20.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

Collection Contents


This folder contains 3 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. These chapters come from the Chemistry sub-topic Matters and Material, but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 10. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS II MATTER AND MATERIALS 1 Classification of Matter - Grade 10 1.1 Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1.1 Heterogeneous mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.1.2 Homogeneous mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.1.3 Separating mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 Pure Substances: Elements and Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2.1 Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2.2 Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.3 Giving names and formulae to substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.4 Metals, Semi-metals and Non-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.1 Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.2 Non-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4.3 Semi-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.5 Electrical conductors, semi-conductors and insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.6 Thermal Conductors and Insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.7 Magnetic and Non-magnetic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2 What are the objects around us made of? - Grade 10 2.1 Introduction: The atom as the building block of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2 Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2.1 Representing molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.3 Intramolecular and intermolecular forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.4 The Kinetic Theory of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.5 The Properties of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3 The Atom - Grade 10 3.1 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.1.1 The Plum Pudding Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.1.2 Rutherford’s model of the atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.1.3 The Bohr Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.2 How big is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.2.1 How heavy is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.2.2 How big is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.3 Atomic structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.3.1 The Electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.3.2 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.4 Atomic number and atomic mass number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3.5 Isotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.5.1 What is an isotope? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.5.2 Relative atomic mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.6 Energy quantisation and electron configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.6.1 The energy of electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.6.2 Energy quantisation and line emission spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.6.3 Electron configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.6.4 Core and valence electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.6.5 The importance of understanding electron configuration . . . . . . . . . 51 3.7 Ionisation Energy and the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.7.1 Ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.7.2 Ionisation Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3.8 The Arrangement of Atoms in the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.8.1 Groups in the periodic table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.8.2 Periods in the periodic table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
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This folder contains 2 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. These chapters come from the Chemistry sub-topic Chemical Change, but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 10. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS III CHEMICAL CHANGE 11 Physical and Chemical Change - Grade 10 11.1 Physical changes in matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 11.2 Chemical Changes in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 11.2.1 Decomposition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 11.2.2 Synthesis reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 11.3 Energy changes in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 11.4 Conservation of atoms and mass in reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 11.5 Law of constant composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 11.6 Volume relationships in gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 11.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 12 Representing Chemical Change - Grade 10 12.1 Chemical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 12.2 Writing chemical formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3 Balancing chemical equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3.1 The law of conservation of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3.2 Steps to balance a chemical equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 12.4 State symbols and other information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 12.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
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This folder contains 3 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. These chapters come from the Chemistry sub-topic Chemical Systems, but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 10. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS 18 The Water Cycle - Grade 10 18.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 18.2 The importance of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 18.3 The movement of water through the water cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 18.4 The microscopic structure of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.4.1 The polar nature of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.4.2 Hydrogen bonding in water molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.5 The unique properties of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 18.6 Water conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 18.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 19 Global Cycles: The Nitrogen Cycle – Grade 10 19.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 19.2 Nitrogen fixation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 19.3 Nitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 19.4 Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 19.5 Human Influences on the Nitrogen Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 19.6 The industrial fixation of nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 19.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 20 The Hydrosphere - Grade 10 20.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 20.2 Interactions of the hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 20.3 Exploring the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 20.4 The Importance of the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 20.5 Ions in aqueous solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 20.5.1 Dissociation in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 20.5.2 Ions and water hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 20.5.3 The pH scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 20.5.4 Acid rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 20.6 Electrolytes, ionisation and conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 20.6.1 Electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 20.6.2 Non-electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 20.6.3 Factors that affect the conductivity of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 20.7 Precipitation reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 20.8 Testing for common anions in solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.1 Test for a chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.2 Test for a sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.3 Test for a carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 20.8.4 Test for bromides and iodides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 20.9 Threats to the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 20.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
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