Aerial view of the East (Neolithic) Mound of Çatalhöyük looking towards the northeast. The sharp interface between the mound and the Konya Plain—the flat area of former marshes and lake—is clearly seen. The latter is now intensively cultivated and drained with ditches and pumps. This activity has considerably lowered the water table from its Neolithic levels and destroyed most tree growth in the surrounding areas. The settlement of the East Mound of Çatalhöyük was established 9,400 years ago. It was not a mound at that time, just a possibly slightly elevated ground rising above surrounding marshes. It grew to be a mound during its 1,000 years of occupation.