TABLE OF CONTENTS

AP Environmental Science Videos by Bozeman Science

AP Environmental Science Videos by Bozeman Science 

Series of outstanding videos from Paul Anderson's AP Environmental Science course.


 

Collection Contents


In this video Paul Andersen outlines the AP Environmental Science course. He explains how environmental science studies the interaction between earth and human systems. A planetary boundary model is used to explain the importance of sustainability. The importance of science practices and knowledge of the APES format is also included.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how matter and energy are conserved within the Earth\'s system. Matter is a closed system and Energy is open to the surroundings. In natural systems steady state is maintained through feedback loops but can be be affected by human society.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how rock is formed and changed on the planet. The video begins with a brief description of rocks, minerals, and the rock cycle. Plate tectonics is used to describe structure near plate boundaries. Hot spots and natural hazards (like volcanos, earthquake, and tsunamis) are included.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how the atmosphere surrounds the planet. The state of the atmosphere is climate and is affected by unequal heating, the Coriolis Effect, and the ocean. Convection cells and ENSO are discussed in detail.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how water is unequally distributed around the globe through the hydrologic cycles. Seawater is everywhere but is not useful without costly desalination. Freshwater is divided between surface water and groundwater but must me stored and moved for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Subsidized low cost water has created a problem with water conservation but economic changes could help solve the problem.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how soils are formed and classified. Weathering of rock creates particles which are mixed with water, air, and organic material. Soils are classified according to particle size, chemical makeup, and horizon distribution. A brief discussion of soil loss through erosion, compaction, and salinization is included.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how ecosystems function. He begins with a description of how life on the planet is ordered from large to small in biomes, ecosystems, communities, population, and individuals. He describes the major terrestrial and aquatic biomes on the planet. He then describes interactions at the ecosystem level with food food webs. He also explains the importance of niche, keystone species, and the edge effect.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how energy flows in ecosystems. Energy enters via producers through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. Producers and consumers release the energy from food through cellular respiration. An explanation of gross primary productivity and net primary productivity are included. Energy and biomass in ecological pyramids show energy efficiency.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how biodiversity can be measured through genetic, species, or ecosystem variety on the planet. Species diversity is increased through speciation and decrease through extinction. The mechanism for speciation is evolution through natural selection. The planet provides ecosystem services at no cost to humanity. The supporting, provisioning, regulating and cultural services are all discussed in more detail.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how the Earth\'s climate will natural change due to interactions between the Sun and Earth, volcanism, and plate tectonics. Species may go extinct leading to adaptive radiation or may move to a suitable climate. Primary and secondary succession are also discussed.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how biogeochemical cycles move required nutrients through the abiotic and biotic spheres on our planet. Matter on the Earth is conserved so producers must receive required nutrients through the water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle, and sulfur cycle.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how population ecology studies the density, distribution, size, sex ration, and age structure of populations. Intrinsic growth rate and exponential growth calculations are included along with a discussion of logistic growth. K-selected and r-selected species are explained along with survivorship curves.
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In this video Paul Andersen explores population dynamics of the human population. The population has show exponential growth since the industrial revolution and all countries will eventually move through the demographic transition. If the growth rate is positive the population will grow exponentially and the doubling time can be calculated using the Rule of 70. The crude birth rate and crude death rate can be used to calculate the natural rate of increase. The demographic transition model and age-structure diagrams can be used to predict future populations.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how the world population has undergone exponential growth since the industrial revolution. Predicting the future world population is difficult because each country will grow at different rates. Age-structure diagrams and the demographic transition model can allow countries to plan for future growth. Government policy can either increase or decrease population growth to avoid catastrophe. China\'s one-child policy is an example of one such policy.
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In this video Paul Andersen talks about the impacts of human growth on the environment and on themselves. The population, affluence, and destructive technology of a population impact the environment according to the IPAT equation. An analogous model is the ecological footprint which increases with development of a nation. Large economies contribute to resource use and habitat destruction. However small economies can lead to problems like disease and hunger.
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In this video Paul Andersen describes the pros and cons of industrial agriculture including: monocropping, irrigation, and the use of pesticides, fertilizers, and GMOs.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how forests and rangelands are managed to provide renewable lumber and cattle. Threats to renewability of forests include old-growth logging, forest fires, and tree plantations. Threats to renewable rangeland include overgrazing, deforestation, and desertification. Much of the public forests are managed by the USFS and federal rangelands are managed by the BLM. A discussion of the Tragedy of the Commons is also included.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how land is developed for human use. Urbanization has occurred through the last century as people have moved to cities in large numbers. Transportation and the arrival of the car have led to urban sprawl and urban blight. Smart growth can be used to mediate some of the ecosystem impacts. Land is also preserved in parks, refuges, and wilderness areas.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how mining is used to extract valuable minerals from the Earth\'s crust. Surface and subsurface mining are used to extract ore which is then processed. A discussion of ecosystem impacts and legislation is also included.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how various techniques have been used for years to collect seafood. Commercial fishing has led to overfishing in certain areas and species due to the tragedy of the commons. An explanation of aquaculture and sustainable fish yield is also included.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how economic models, like supply and demand, can be applied to environmental systems. The market forces will not protect environmental services until proper valuation and externalities are established. The wealth of a nation can be more accurately measured through the sustainability of the economic model.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains the different forms and units for energy. A discussion of the laws of thermodynamics is also included. Sample conversion problems using dimensional analysis is also included.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how humans have consumed energy through history and may consume energy in the future. Sources of energy have included food, animals, wood, wind, coal, oil, and natural gas. However non-renewable energy source eventually lead to an energy crisis as supplies go down or prices go up. Humans will hopefully use more renewable energy sources in the future.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how fossil fuels are formed when organic material is heating and squeezed in an anaerobic environment. Formation, extraction, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed for coal, petroleum and natural gas.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how nuclear energy is released during fission of radioactive uranium. Light water reactors, nuclear waste, and nuclear accidents are also discussed along with the future of nuclear energy.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how energy can be harnessed was water moves through a turbine. Three types of systems are discussed in the video; run-of-the-water, impoundment, and tidal. Several advantages and disadvantages of dams are discussed.
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The best form of energy available to the world is energy reduction. In this video Paul Andersen explains how energy conservation and energy efficiency and be used to decrease energy during peak demand. Tiered and variable pricing, as well as sustainable design are also discussed.
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In this video Paul Andersen discusses the technology, advantages and disadvantages of six sources of renewable energy; biomass, hydroelectric, solar, geothermal wind, and hydrogen. He also explains how changes in the storage and flow of energy in our power grid must be improved. He also lists the energy returned over energy invested ration for the various forms of energy.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how air pollution is any chemicals in the atmosphere that negatively affect human health. Primary pollutants (like CO, VOCs, NOx, SO2, PM, and Lead) as well as secondary pollutants (like Ozone, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid) are included. Regulation of air pollution and technology can mediate the health threat.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how water quality can be degraded by pollutants. Wastewater is the main source of water pollution and can be measure using the BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). Dead zones, cultural eutrophication, disease, and other pollutants are included. A basic description of sewage treatment, septic systems, and water purification is also included.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains the basics of solid waste including trends over time, basic composition, and disposal. A brief description of the three R\'s (reuse, reduce, and recycle) is included as ways to minimize waste. Legislation including RCRA and CERCLA (the Superfund Act) were enacted to deal with hazardous waste. A description of basic landfill construction is also included.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how chemicals can cause both chronic and acute diseases. A discussion of the five main types of toxins; neurotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens, endocrine disruptors, and allergens is including. The LD50 method of determining toxicity as well as a discussion of bioaccumulation and biomagnification is is included.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how stratospheric ozone protects humans from ultraviolet light. He explains how stratospheric ozone is formed when diatomic oxygen absorbs an ultraviolet photon and is split into two free oxygen atoms. The free atoms bond with another oxygen molecule to form an ozone molecule creating a stable ozone layer. He then explains how chlorine atoms released from chlorofluorocarbon molecules act as an enzyme to breakdown up to 100,000 ozone molecules. The Montreal Protocol was a treaty signed by countries on the planet to reduce the amount of CFCs in the atmosphere to protect the ozone layer.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how the climate on the earth is affected by the amount of solar radiation and the greenhouse affect. The addition of anthropogenic greenhouse gases has led to global warming which is impacting humans on the planet. A discussion of the greenhouse effect and greenhouse gases (including water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and CFCs) is included. Countries have committed to reduce through both the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement.
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how biodiversity measures the variety of genes, species, and ecosystems on the planet. Biodiversity provides resources and ecosystem services for humans on the planet. He also explains how biodiversity is decreasing on the planet due to habitat destruction, invasive species, climate change, over harvesting, and pollution. Relevant treaties and laws designed to preserved biodiversity is also included.
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