AP Biology videos

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Link to sample test questions: http://www.collegeboard.com/student/t...In this video Paul Andersen describes the new AP Biology Exam. This exam will be given for the first time in May of 2013 and will be different from all previous exams. In this video Paul Andersen describes the scoring and the two parts of the exam. Half of the score will come from the multiple choice portion and half will come from the essays. He ends the video by discussing what material you should study.College Board Link - http://collegeboard.com/student/testi...Intro Music AtributionTitle: I4dsong_loop_main.wavArtist: CosmicDLink to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/Cosmi...Creative Commons Atribution License
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Natural Selection

by Colt McNealy

001 - Natural SelectionPaul Andersen explains how natural selection is a major mechanism in evolution. The video begins with a discussion of Charles Darwin and the details of natural selection. The data of the peppered moth during the industrial revolution is used to show the process of adaptation. Allele frequencies are calculated before and after the selection. The adaptation of cichlids in African lakes is also included.Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla...All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:"File:Altolamprologus Calvus.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alt...."File:Antibiotic Resistance.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ant...."File:Biston.betularia.7200.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bis...."File:Biston.betularia.f.carbonaria.7209­.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bis...."File:Charles Darwin by G. Richmond.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cha...."File:Cyphotilapia Frontosa by Ark.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cyp...."File:Fisherman on Lake Tanganyika.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 30, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t...."File:Great Tit (Parus Major) 1.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gre...."File:Lichte En Zwarte Versie Berkenspanner.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lic...."File:Neolamprologus Cylindricus.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Neo...."File:TropheusspRed200.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tro....Intro Music AtributionTitle: I4dsong_loop_main.wavArtist: CosmicDLink to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/Cosmi...Creative Commons Atribution License
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002 - Natural Selection ExamplesPaul Andersen details examples of natural selection in the world. He starts by explaining how changes in global temperatures are causing plants to adapt. He explains how mutations cause changes in phenotype which give organisms varying levels of fitness. Two specific examples of natural selection; sickle cell disease and muti-drug resistant tuberculosis are also included.
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Genetic Drift

by Colt McNealy

003 - Genetic DriftPaul Andersen describes genetic drift as a mechanism for evolutionary change. A population genetics simulator is used to show the importance of large population size in neutralizing random change. The near extinction of the northern elephant is used as an example of the bottleneck effect. The high incidence of total colorblindness due to a typhoon that hit the small island of Pingelap is also included.Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla...All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:Agency, U. S. Central Intelligence. English: Map of the Federated States of Micronesia., 1999. Federated States of Micronesia (Political) 1999 from Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection: Federated States of Micronesia Maps. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Center, Astronaut photograph ISS008-E.-19646 was taken March 7, 2004, with a Kodak DCS760 digital camera equipped with an 50-mm lens, and is provided by the Earth Observations Laboratory, Johnson Space. English: Before the Year 2004, Only Two Tropical Cyclones Had Ever Been Noted in the South Atlantic Basin, and No Hurricane. However, a Circulation Center Well Off the Coast of Southern Brazil Developed Tropical Cyclone Characteristics and Continued to Intensify as It Moved Westward. The System Developed an Eye and Apparently Reached Hurricane Strength on Friday, March 26, before Eventually Making Landfall Late on Saturday, March 27, 2004., March 26, 2004. NASA. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil...."File:Example-of-adaptive-radation.svg." Simple English Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/File...."File:Founder Effect with Drift.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fou...."File:Mirounga Angustirostris Distribution.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mir...."File:Northern Elephant Seal, San Simeon2.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nor...."File:Random Genetic Drift Chart.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ran...."File:Random Sampling Genetic Drift.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ran...."File:RGB 24bits Palette Sample Image.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:RGB...."File:Southern Elephant Seal Area.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sou....Smurrayinchester. A Satellite Photo of the Atoll of Pingelap, Federated States of Micronesia, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Intro Music AtributionTitle: I4dsong_loop_main.wavArtist: CosmicDLink to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/Cosmi...Creative Commons Atribution License
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Evidence for Evolution

by Colt McNealy

004 - Scientific Evidence for EvolutionPaul Andersen lists major evidence for the existence of evolution. He begins with a discussion of Charles Darwin and the evidence that he presented in the Origin of Species, including biogeography, fossils, and homologies. He also explains how DNA evidence can be used to trace evolutionary history.Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla...All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:"3T3 Cells." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, July 23, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t...."File:Chathamensis.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cha....File:Darwin-s-tubercle.jpg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil...."File:Galapagos-satellite-esislandnames.­jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gal...."File:GNigrita.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GNi...."File:Homology Vertebrates.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed October 31, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hom...."File:Orthographic Projection Centred over the Galapagos.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ort....Konversionlexikon, Meyers. Deutsch: Skelett Eines Bartwales (a - Schulterblatt, b - Vorderbein, c - Rest Des Hinterbeins), 1988. Meyers Konversionlexikon 1888. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Lilyu. Friendly Stickmen, December 17, 2008. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....publisher, Bain News Service. Charles Darwin. 1 Negative : Glass ; 5 x 7 in. or Smaller. From a Photograph by Elliott & Fry. According to Gene Kritsky, Maintainer of an Archive of Darwin Photographs, This Was from a Photography Session at Darwin's Home, Down House, and on Another Photograph from That Session Darwin Wrote "1879" on the Back. It Was Later Widely Sold and Distributed on Heavy Card Stock by Elliott & Fry, with a Caption Dating It "Circa 1880". It Was Later Reproduced in a Wide Range of Darwiniana., 1879. Library of Congress[1]. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....version, Original uploader was Mcy jerry at en wikipedia Later. English: en:Evolution of En:horse, February 5, 2006. Transferred from en.wikipedia. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Weston, Mike. Lonesome George, December 10, 2006. Flickr: Lonesome George 2. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Yourdon, Ed. Little Girl Whispering Something in a Woman's Ear., July 18, 2009. originally posted to Flickr as Let me tell you a secret. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Zell, H. Deutsch: Evolution Der Pferde. Zusammengestellt Aus Skeletten Des Staatlichen Museums Für Naturkunde Karlsruhe, Deutschland., September 29, 2010. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Intro Music AtributionTitle: I4dsong_loop_main.wavArtist: CosmicDLink to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/Cosmi...Creative Commons Atribution License
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005 - Essential Characteristics of Life are ConservedPaul Andersen describes three main characteristics of life that are conserved in all organisms on the planet. The universal genetic code, the central dogma of biology, and shared metabolic pathways give us details of the original universal ancestor. He also explains how eukaryotic cells gained complexity through infolding of the cell membrane and endosymbiosis.Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla...All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:"File:ADN Animation.gif." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ADN...."File:Aequorea4.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aeq...."File:Atp Exp.qutemol-ball.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Atp...."File:Auto-and Heterotrophs.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aut...."File:Centraldogma nodetails.GIF." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cen...."File:Diversity of Plants Image Version 5.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Div...."File:FPbeachTsien.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:FPb...."File:Francis Crick.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fra...."File:Fungi Collage.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fun...."File:GloFish.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Glo...."File:Protist Collage.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pro....Hillewaert, creator of composite, User:Medeis; original authors, as credited individually above:User:Bkmiles, User:Panda3, Hans. A Composite Image from the Following Wikimedia Free Images; Click on Each Image for Its Individual Description:, January 30, 2010. File:PIC_0546.JPG. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....LadyofHats, Mariana Ruiz. ???????: ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????.English: The Diagram Shows a Endomembrane System on a Eukaryote cell.Français : Diagramme Du Système Endomembranaire D'une Cellule Eukaryote. Ce Diagramme Est Aussi Disponible En français.Português: Diagrama Do Sistema Endomembranar de Uma Célula Eucariótica. Este Diagrama Encontra-se Disponível Também Em Português., April 26, 2006. i made it myself on adobe ilustrator based on the information found on this websites:[1], [2],[3],[4] and [5]. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....LadyofHats, Mariana Ruiz Villarreal. Português: o Diagrama Mostra Uma Secção de Uma Mitocôndria de Célula Eucariótica. Mitocôndrias São Organelas Envolvidas Por Membranas, Distribuídas No Citosol Da Maioria Das Células Eucarióticas. Sua Função Principal é a Conversão de Um Potencial de Energia de Moléculas de Alimento Em ATP., May 2, 2006. the diagram i made myself using adobe illustrator. as a source for the information i used the diagrams found here:[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6] and [7]. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Miguelsierra. Español: Esquema de Un Cloroplasto., April 19, 2008. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil...."Tree of Life (biology)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 27, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t....Intro Music AtributionTitle: I4dsong_loop_main.wavArtist: CosmicDLink to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/Cosmi...Creative Commons Atribution License
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Paul Andersen reviews the major within the first unit on natural selection. He starts by defining evolution and explaining how evolution can occur in a population. He reviews the population genetics and camouflage lab. He reviews genetic drift and finishes with a brief discussion of characteristics that are conserved in living organisms.Intro Music AtributionTitle: I4dsong_loop_main.wavArtist: CosmicDLink to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/Cosmi...Creative Commons Atribution License
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Phylogenetics

by Colt McNealy

006 - PhylogeneticsPaul Andersen discusses the specifics of phylogenetics. The evolutionary relationships of organisms are discovered through both morphological and molecular data. A specific type of phylogenetic tree, the cladogram, is also covered.Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla...All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....B, Lennert. English: Modification of Original Schematic, March 5, 2012. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia.... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Blutkreislauf_Amphibien.svg, The author of. Representació Simplificada de La Circulació Sanguínia Dels Amfibis: El Vermell Representa La Sang Rica En Oxigen, El Blau La Sang Pobra En Oxigen i El Rosa La Sang Mixta., 20:10 (UTC). Blutkreislauf_Amphibien.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....coxhead, Phylogenetic-Groups svg: Original uploader was TotoBaggins at en wikipediaderivative work: Peter. English: Phylogenetic Groups: *A Monophyletic Taxon Contains a Common Ancestor and All of Its Descendants.  Diagram: In Yellow, the Group of "Reptiles and Birds" *A Paraphyletic Taxon Contains Its Most Recent Common Ancestor, but Does Not Contain All the Descendants of That Ancestor.  Diagram: In Cyan, the Reptiles *A Polyphyletic Taxon Does Not Contain the Most Recent Common Ancestor of All Its Members.  Diagram: In Red, the Group of "All Warm-blooded Animals," 10:07 (UTC). Phylogenetic-Groups.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil...."File:Clade-grade II.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cla...."File:Evolution of Dinosaurs EN.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Evo...."File:Faroe Stamp 401 Fin Whale (Balaenoptera Physalus).jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 4, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Far...."File:Humpback Stellwagen Edit.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 30, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t...."File:Phylogenetic Tree.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phy...."File:Spindle Diagram.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spi....Fuglø, Artist: Edward. Sei Whale, September 17, 2001. Cropped from PD Faroe postage stamp (Stamps FO 403 of Postverk Føroya, Faroe Islands). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Inaglory, Brocken InagloryUploaded by Brocken. English: Minke Whale in Ross Sea, Antarctica The Picture Is a Scan of an Old Film Picture., October 27, 2007. Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by User:Leptictidium using CommonsHelper. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....information, This file is lacking author. Gray Whale - Eschrichtius Robustus - at Scammons Lagoon, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/htmls/an... Image ID: anim0846, NOAA's Ark - Animals Collection. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Morningdew. Deutsch: Begegnung Mit Einem Brydewal (Balaenoptera Brydei), Koh PhiPhi, Thailand.  Dieser Adulte Wal (ca. 8m) Durchbricht Gerade Die Meeresoberfläche, Um „abzublasen". Welch Überraschendes Und Beeindruckendes Erlebnis, Einem Solch Imposanten Säugetier Zu Begegnen., May 2005. Selbst erstellt, Olympus mju4; mit Photoshop bearbeitet u. reduziert. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....SkyMaja. Uproszczony Schemat Uk?adu Krwiono?nego Gadów, December 14, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....USA, Mike Baird from Morro Bay. Blue Whale Tail Fluke Diving Balaenoptera Musculus 29 July 2010 - It Is Somewhat Rare to See the Tail Fluke of a Blue Whale Upon Diving., July 29, 2010. Blue Whale Tail Fluke Diving Balaenoptera musculus 29 July 2010 - It is somewhat rare to see the tail fluke of a Blue Whale upon diving. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....
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007 - Speciation and ExtinctionPaul Andersen details the evolutionary processes of speciation and extinction. Stickleback evolution in Lake Loberg is used as example of rapid speciation. Adaptive radiation is illustrated using the Hawaiian honeycreeper. A brief discussion of extinctions and mass extinctions is also included.Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla...All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:bica, paul. Waipio Valley, January 27, 2011. http://www.flickr.com/photos/dexxus/5....Davis/NASA, Don. English: K/T Extinction Event Theory. An Artist's Depiction of the Asteroid Impact 65 Million Years Ago That Many Scientists Say Is the Most Direct Cause of the Dinosaurs' Disappearance [1]., [object HTMLTableCellElement]. http://solarsystem.jpl.nasa.gov/multi.... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil...."File:Bufo Periglenes2.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 25, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t....File:Cassowary-head.jpg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....File:Chicxulub2.jpg, n.d. http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/File:Chic...."File:Darwin's Finches by Gould.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dar...."File:Darwin's Finches by Gould.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dar...."File:Drepanis funerea-Keulemans.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dre...."File:Grote Alk -KBIN-.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gro...."File:HemignathusKeulemans.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hem...."File:Himatione Sanguinea.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Him...."File:Iiwi.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Iiw....Intro Music AtributionTitle: I4dsong_loop_main.wavArtist: CosmicDLink to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/Cosmi...Creative Commons Atribution License
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Speciation

by Colt McNealy

008 - Reproductive Isolation and SpeciationPaul Andersen explains how reproductive isolation can eventually lead to speciation. Three main barriers to gene flow are included: geographic, pre-zygotic and post-zygotic. Both allopatric and sympatric speciation are discussed. A brief discussing of polyploidy and punctuated equilibrium are also included.Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla...All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:Davison, Angus; Chiba, Satoshi; Barton, Nicholas; Clarke, Bryan. "Speciation and Gene Flow Between Snails of Opposite Chirality." PLOS Biology, September 2005."File:Drosophila Speciation.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dro...."File:Eastern American Toad.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eas...."File:Great Wall of China July 2006.JPG." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gre....File:Hamburger Sandwich.jpg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil...."File:Loxodontacyclotis.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lox...."File:Polyploidization.svg." Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pol...."File:Punctuated-equilibrium.svg." Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pun...."File:Reef0484.jpg." Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ree...."File:Salad Platter.jpg." Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t...."File:Speciation Modes.svg." Wikipedia, . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spe...."File:Stephen Jay Gould by Kathy Chapman.png." Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ste...."File:Tympanoctomys Barrerae.jpg." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tym...."File:Wheat close-up.JPG." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Whe....Jimpaz. Anaxyrus Fowleri, April 25, 2010. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Lascorz, Juan R. English: Mule in Moriles, Córdoba (Spain)., July 2009. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Marlin, Bruce. Siberian Elm Ulmus Pumila. Morton Arboretum Accession 325-70-4., July 12, 2007. Own work: http://www.cirrusimage.com/tree_Siber.... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Rae, Alastair. Sturnella Magna, February 25, 2009. originally posted to Flickr as Eastern Meadowlark. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Unknown. English: A Sperm Cell Fertilizing an Egg Cell, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. http://www.pdimages.com/web9.htm. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....USA, Kevin Cole from Pacific Coast. Western Meadowlark (Sturnella Neglecta). Taken on Turri Road from the Car with a Canon 500mm f/4L and 40D. Kirk Window Mount and Wimberley Head., March 13, 2008. Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) The State bird for Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon and Wyoming. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....:Etosha elefant.jpg." http://hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%9...."File:Wheat close-up.JPG." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Whe....Jimpaz. Anaxyrus Fowleri, April 25, 2010. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Lascorz, Juan R. English: Mule in Moriles, Córdoba (Spain)., July 2009. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Marlin, Bruce. Siberian Elm Ulmus Pumila. Morton Arboretum Accession 325-70-4., July 12, 2007. Own work: http://www.cirrusimage.com/tree_Siber.... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Rae, Alastair. Sturnella Magna, February 25, 2009. originally posted to Flickr as Eastern Meadowlark. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Unknown. English: A Sperm Cell Fertilizing an Egg Cell, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. http://www.pdimages.com/web9.htm. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....USA, Kevin Cole from Pacific Coast. Western Meadowlark (Sturnella Neglecta). Taken on Turri Road from the Car with a Canon 500mm f/4L and 40D. Kirk Window Mount and Wimberley Head., March 13, 2008. Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) The State bird for Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon and Wyoming. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil...."?????:Etosha elefant.jpg."
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Evolution Continues

by Colt McNealy

009 - Populations Continue to EvolvePaul Andersen explains how life has evolved and continues to evolve today. A brief discussion of artificial, natural and sexual selection is included. The beak of the finch is used to explain how directional selection is achieved.Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla...All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:"Brassica Rapa." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 3, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t....Canada, Benson Kua from Toronto. English: I've Been to the Toronto Zoo a Couple of Times Already over the Past Couple Years and They Have These Peacocks That Roam Freely About the Park. Over the Years That I Have Been Visiting the Zoo, I Have Never Actually Seen a Single Peacock Open up Its Tail Feathers; All I've Really Gotten Was Several Moonings. However, Today, I Actually Got to See One Open up Its Tail Feathers and It Was a Good Thing I Had My Camera with Me!, May 21, 2011. Finally! http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....en.wikipedia, Movera at. English: View of Daphne Major in the Galapagos Islands, Unknown date. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil...."File:Alice in Wonderland.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ali...."File:Big and Little Dog 1.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Big...."File:Brassica Rapa Plant.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bra...."File:Bull Elk Bugling During the Fall Mating Season.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bul...."File:DogVALEN-obit-popup.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 23, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t...."File:Geospiza Fortis.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Geo...."File:Grand Prismatic Spring.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 23, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t....File:Mayuuraa-peahen.jpg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil...."File:Newborn Checkup.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:New...."File:Selectiontypes-n0 Images.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sel...."File:Tenniel Red Queen with Alice.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ten...."Geoffrey Miller (evolutionary Psychologist)." Psychology Wiki. Accessed November 9, 2013. http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Geof...).Goldom. English: Trees (Tsuga Heterophylla) and Roots in Hoh Rain Forest, March 26, 2006. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Gould, John. Darwin's Finches or Galapagos Finches. Darwin, 1845. Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle Round the World, Under the Command of Capt. Fitz Roy, R.N. 2d Edition., before 1882. From "Voyage of the Beagle" as found on [1] and [2]. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Roomtorun. Herds of Zebra and Impala Gathering on Masai Mara Plain, June 28, 2004. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....
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Abiogenesis

by Colt McNealy

010 - AbiogenesisPaul Andersen describes how life could have formed on our planet through natural processes. The progression from monomers, to polymers, to protocells and finally to cells is described. The Miller-Urey experiment is described in detail as well as characteristics of the latest universal ancestor.Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla...All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:Darwin, Francis. English: A Photographic Portrait of Darwin Standing Next to a Pillar in the Book Charles Darwin Published in 1908, Edited by His Son Francis Darwin. Photo Was Taken c. 1881 by Messers. Elliot and Fry. Signature of Darwin Is Below the Photograph., April 16, 2013. Charles Darwin. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....File: Harold Urey.jpg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil...."File:Citric Acid Cycle with Aconitate 2.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, May 7, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t...."File:Full Length Hammerhead Ribozyme.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ful...."File:Louis Pasteur, Foto Av Félix Nadar Crisco Edit.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 26, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t...."File:Miller-Urey Experiment-en.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mil...."File:Stromatolites in Shark Bay.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Str...."File:Stromatolites.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Str....Netherlands, FotoosVanRobin from. English: Reindeer Steaks from the Lidl, Sold for € 39,50 P/kg. I Dediced to Smoke Them in My Stovetop Smoker and Quickly Grill Them. As They Were Quite Thin I Was Afraid to Overcook Them, but They Turn Out Nice and Rare. Very Tender Meat, with a Slight Gamy Taste. A Bit Like Springbok, I Think., February 23, 2010. Reindeer steak. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Unknown. Stanley Miller, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. web99.arc.nasa.gov/astrochm/Miller/phot­o.html. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....User:Img. This File Has No Description, and May Be Lacking Other Information., Unknown date. Self-photographed. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....
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The origin of Life

by Colt McNealy

011 - The Origin of Life - Scientific EvidencePaul Andersen discusses scientific evidence of the origin of life on our planet. He begins with a brief discussion of the age of the earth and ends with the future of humanity. He includes geologic, chemical and molecular data.Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla...All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:"File:Banana and Cross Section.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ban...."File:BlueMarble-2001-2002.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Blu...."File:Canyon-diablo-meteorite.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Can...."File:Geologic Clock with Events and Periods.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Geo...."File:Lord Kelvin Photograph.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lor...."File:Meteor.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Met...."File:Miller-Urey Experiment-en.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mil...."File:Miller1999.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mil...."File:PPTCountdowntoSingularityLog.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PPT...."File:Raymond Kurzweil Fantastic Voyage.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ray...."File:Tree of Life SVG.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tre...."File:Universe Expansion2.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Uni...."File:Urey.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ure...."Volcanoes May Have Sparked First Life | KPBS.org." Accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.kpbs.org/news/2008/oct/16/....Intro Music AtributionTitle: I4dsong_loop_main.wavArtist: CosmicDLink to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/Cosmi...Creative Commons Atribution License
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Paul Andersen reviews the major concepts within the second unit of the new AP Biology framework. He starts by describing how life is organized into three domains. He explains how the history of life on the planet is characterized by mass extinctions followed by adaptive radiation. He explains how geographic, behavioral, temporal and mechanical isolation can create new species. He also explains how microevolution within a population can explain. He ends the podcast by describing abiogenesis and mentioning the major milestones in the evolution of life on the planet.Intro Music AtributionTitle: I4dsong_loop_main.wavArtist: CosmicDLink to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/Cosmi...Creative Commons Atribution License
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Gibbs Free Energy

by Colt McNealy

Paul Andersen attempts to explain Gibbs Free Energy. He begins by using three spontaneous reactions to explain how a change in enthalpy, entropy and temperature can affect the free energy of a system. He then applies this concept to cellular respiration and photosynthesis.Intro Music AtributionTitle: I4dsong_loop_main.wavArtist: CosmicDLink to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/Cosmi...Creative Commons Atribution License
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012 - Life Requires Free EnergyPaul Andersen describes how free energy is used by organisms to grow, maintain order, and reproduce. A brief discussion of the first and second law of thermodynamics is also included. Disruptions in the amount of free energy can cause death and disruptions to popultaions, communities, and ecosystems.Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla...All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:Bread, n.d. http://openclipart.org/detail/16974/b....Farm, n.d. http://openclipart.org/detail/27083/f....Fast Food, Lunch-Dinner, Lasagna, n.d. http://openclipart.org/detail/9081/fa...."File:BlueMarble-2001-2002.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Blu...."File:Diagram of Eye Evolution.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dia...."File:Glycolysis2.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gly...."File:Human Embryo - Approximately 8 Weeks Estimated Gestational Age.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hum....File:Kartoffeln Der Sorte Marabel.JPG, n.d. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/File:Ka...."File:Leaf 1 Web.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t...."File:Lobes of the Brain NL.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lob....File:Mouse.svg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil...."File:Rano Raraku Quarry.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ran....Intro Music AtributionTitle: I4dsong_loop_main.wavArtist: CosmicDLink to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/Cosmi...Creative Commons Atribution License
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013 - Free Energy Capture and StoragePaul Andersen details the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in this video on free energy capture and storage. Autotrophs use the light reactions and the Calvin cycle to convert energy from the Sun into sugars. Autotrophs and heterotrophs use cellular respiration to convert this sugar into ATP. Both chemosynthesis and fermentation are discussed. The evolution of photosynthesis is also discussed.Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla...All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:"File:Auto-and Heterotrophs.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aut...."File:Black-band Ironstone (aka).jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bla...."File:Calvin-cycle4.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cal...."File:CellRespiration.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cel...."File:FLOR-ValdiviaJerez59.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:FLO...."File:Melvin Calvin.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mel...."File:Nur04505.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nur...."File:Oxygenation-atm-2.svg." Simple English Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/File...."File:Plagiomnium Affine Laminazellen.jpeg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pla...."File:Seawifs Global Biosphere.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t...."File:Simple Photosynthesis Overview.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sim...."File:Thylakoid Membrane.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thy....LadyofHats, Mariana Ruiz Villarreal. English: A Diagram Showing a Mitochondrion of the Eukaryotic Cell. Mitochondria Are Organelles Surrounded by Membranes, Distributed in the Cytosol of Most Eukaryotic Cells. Its Main Function Is the Conversion of Potential Energy of Pyruvate Molecules into ATP., May 2, 2006. the diagram i made myself using adobe illustrator. as a source for the information i used the diagrams found here:[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6] and [7]. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Porse, Sten. Denmark. Acer Campestre, September 16, 2002. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....self-made. English: A Vectorised Version of File:Chloroplast-new.jpg. A Diagram Showing the Simple Structure of a Chloroplast, October 7, 2009. File:Chloroplast_diagram.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....Wegmann. English: Cheetah in the Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Game Reserve, South Africa at Sunset, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil....
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014 - Environmental Matter ExchangePaul Andersen explains how living organisms exchange matter with the environment. The importance of the surface area to volume ratio is emphasized using a simple mathematical model. The essential chemicals for life; water, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus are described. Each of these elements are vital to the four major macromolecules. A brief description of the biogeochemical cycles is also included.
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Cell Membranes

by Colt McNealy

015 - Cell MembranesPaul Andersen explains how cells are selectively permeable with the help of their cell membrane. The main constituents of the cell membrane, including cholesterol, glycolipids, glycoproteins, phospholipids, and proteins are included. The fluid mosaic model is also illustrated. The cell wall in plants, bacteria, and fungi is also discussed.
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016 - Transport Across Cell MembranesPaul Andersen describes how cells move materials across the cell membrane. All movement can be classified as passive or active. Passive transport, like diffusion, requires no energy as particles move along their gradient. Active transport requires additional energy as particles move against their gradient. Specific examples, like GLUT and the Na/K pump are included.
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Compartamentalization

by Colt McNealy

017 - CompartmentalizationPaul Andersen explains how eukaryotic cells use compartmentalization to increase the surface area and level of specialization within the cell. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are compared and contrasted. The role of both the mitochodria and endoplasmic reticulum are discussed.
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Homeostasis Preview

by Colt McNealy

Paul Andersen reviews the major components of the homeostasis. He explains how organisms respond to abiotic and biotic factors in their environment with feedback loops. He shows how responses can be behavioral or physiological.
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018 - Positive and Negative Feedback LoopsPaul Andersen explains how feedback loops allow living organisms to maintain homeostasis. He uses thermoregulation in mammals to explain how a negative feedback loop functions. He uses fruit ripening to explain how a positive feedback loop functions. He also explains what can happen when a feedback look is altered. Diabetes mellitus is caused by an alteration in the blood glucose feedback loop.
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019 - Response to External EnvironmentsPaul Andersen explains how organisms respond to the external environment. He begins with a discussion of behavioral responses like hibernation and migration. He ends with a discussion of physiological responses like shivering and sweating. Organisms respond to their environment in order to maintain homeostasis.
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020 - Biotic and Abiotic FactorsPaul Andersen differentiates between biotic and abiotic factors. He explains how both abiotic and biotic factors can affect organisms at the level of the cell, the population and even the ecosystem. The complexities of biofilms, predator-prey relationships, and food webs are given as illustrative examples.
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Homeostatic Evolution

by Colt McNealy

021 - Homeostatic Mechanisms Reflect Evolution - Paul Andersen shows how homeostasis reflects of evolution through time. The endocrine system shows continuity through flatworms, earthworms and vertebrates. However the respiratory system shows change as organisms move onto land. The importance of the Tiktaalik fossil as a transitional fossil is emphasized.
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022 - Effect of Homeostatic DisruptionsPaul Andersen explains how disruptions in homeostasis can affect biological systems at all levels. He uses the example of dehydration in animals to explain how disruptions at the cellular level can affect an organism. He also uses the example of the invasive brown tree snake in Guam to explain how disruptions can affect entire ecosystems.
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023 - Plant and Animal Defense MechanismsPaul Andersen describes how plants and animals defend themselves against pathogens. He begins by discussing the hypersensitive response in plants as a nonspecific form of immune response. He then discusses both the humoral and cell-mediated immune response in mammals. A brief discussion of the chicken pox, small pox and HIV is included.
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024 - Regulation of Timing and Coordination in Development - Paul Andersen explains how genes control the timing and coordination of embryo development. Seed germination initiates the discussion of cell differentiation. The SRY gene and genetic transplantation shows the importance of embryonic discussion. Cell deat is also an important part of development that is regulated by microRNA. HOX genes (a form of homeotic genes) is also discussed.
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025 - Mechanisms of Timing and ControlPaul Andersen explains how organisms regulate timing and control. Phototropism and Photoperiodism allow plants to respond to light throughout the day and year. Circadian rhythms are used in all organisms (including animals) as an internal clock. Bacteria use quorum sensing to communicate the number of bacteria present.
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026 - Behavior and Natural SelectionPaul Andersen explains how the behavior of various organisms is shaped by natural selection. The action of phototropism and the timing of photoperiodism have both been shaped by the relative availability of light. Courtship in the bower bird determines the success of offspring. And finally pollination represents the combined success of the coevolution between insects and flowers.
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Paul Andersen reviews the major concepts within the fourth unit of the new AP Biology framework. He begins by differentiating between negative and positive feedback loops. He explains how a stable internal environment is maintained through behavior and physiology. He details thermoregulation, osmoregulation and blood glucose regulation. He also describes how natural selection has shaped behavior.
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Genetics Preview

by Colt McNealy

Paul Andersen previews the information in the genetics unit. He defines the central dogma of biology and explains how DNA creates an RNA transcript that is used to translate proteins. He differentiates between mitosis and meiosis. He also explains how Mendelian genetics differs from the current understanding of genetics. He ends with a brief description of gene regulation.
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DNA and RNA - Part 1

by Colt McNealy

027 - DNA and RNA - Part 1 - Paul Andersen introduces the nucleic acids of life; RNA and DNA. He details the history of DNA from Griffith, to Avery, to Hershey and finally to Watson and Crick. He also details the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes.
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DNA and RNA - Part 2

by Colt McNealy

027 - DNA and RNA - Part 2Paul Andersen continues his description of DNA and RNA. He begins with the structure of DNA and RNA and moves into the process of DNA Replication. He also describes the central dogma of biology explaining how DNA is transcribed to mRNA and is finally translated into proteins. He also introduces genetic engineering and explains how transformation is used to create insulin.
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028 - Cell Cycle, Mitosis and MeiosisPaul Andersen explains how the cell cycle is used to create new cells. The creation of identical diploid daughter cells, through mitosis, is described. The creation of unique haploid daughter cells, through meiosis is also described. The importance of cyclin and cyclin dependent kinases to regulate the cell cycle is included.
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Mendelian Genetics

by Colt McNealy

029 - Mendelian GeneticsPaul Andersen explains simple Mendelian genetics. He begins with a brief introduction of Gregor Mendel and his laws of segregation and independent assortment. He then presents a number of simple genetics problems along with their answers. He also explains how advances in genetic knowledge may lead to ethical and privacy concerns.
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Advanced Genetics

by Colt McNealy

030 - Advanced GeneticsPaul Andersen explains important concepts that can not be explained by simple Mendelian genetics. He begins with a discussion of polygenic inheritance and uses a simulation on height to show how a bell shape curve of phenotypes is produced. He then discusses the importance of linked genes and those that are found on the sex chromosome. A simple punnett square showing the inheritance of the color blind gene is included.
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Gene Regulation

by Colt McNealy

031 - Gene RegulationPaul Andersen explains how genes are regulated in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. He begins with a description of the lac and trp operon and how they are used by bacteria in both positive and negative response. He also explains the importance of transcription factors in eukaryotic gene expression.
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Paul Andersen reviews the major concepts within the fifth unit of the new AP Biology framework. He starts with a description of both DNA and RNA. He explains how DNA is copied during the S phase of mitosis. He explains how transcription produces a strand of mRNA that is translated at the ribosome into a polypeptide. He compares and contrasts mitosis and meiosis and differentiates between haploid and diploid cells. He finally discusses Mendelian and chromosomal genetics. He finishes the podcast with a discussing of operons and transcription factors.
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