TABLE OF CONTENTS

2s

Reviewed Resources with a score of 2.

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4th Grade Science

by Michelle Holden

Notebook lesson on adaptations plants and animals make to survive.
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Marine Mammals

by Joshua Marks

From Wikipedia - an article describing the five groups of marine mammals, as well as their characteristics.
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Learn how to prepare award-winning science fair projects on plants and botany. Projects include: 1. How do different conditions affect the speed at which fruit and vegetables ripen? 2. How do different types of fertilizers affect plant growth? 3. What happens when you grow sweet potatoes next to other plants? 4. How do different treatments change how fast seeds sprout? 5. How close does a pesticide have to be to protect a plant? 6. How does soil pH affect the pH of water that touches the soil? 7. Which way is up? 8. Roots restrictions 9. Can different colors and types of cloth attract or repel insects from plants? 10. The effects of light on seedlings germination rate of a plant? 11. What affect does the brightness of light have on the growth rate of a plant? 12. Does crowding affect plant growth? 13. Does Colored Mulch Affect Soil Temperature? 14. Does Colored Mulch Affect the Growth Rate of a Plant? This resource is part of the Biology Links for One Laptop Per Child course which contains units on Exploring Life; The Cell; Genetics; Mechanisms of Evolution; The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity; Plant Form and Function; Animal Form and Function; Ecology; and Astrobiology.
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Space food research meets the challenge of providing food that tastes good and travels well in space. The activities in this NASA educator guide for grades K-8 emphasize hands-on and cooperative involvement of students as they explore the unique problems of keeping astronauts happy and healthy in space.
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The activities in this guide promote problem solving, communication skills and teamwork. Earth and space science subjects include lunar geology and regolith, distance to the moon, Apollo landing sites and life support systems. To download the complete educator's guide, click here.
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Commotion in the Ocean

by lauren thurmon

Commotion in the Ocean, an integrated, thematic first grade social studies and science unit, focuses on the major oceans and the sea life that inhabit those bodies of water. The unit will address an overarching concept of location and teach students the relationship between their location (i.e. where they live) and the location of the major oceans and animals that live in the oceans. In this unit, students will research an ocean of their choice and several ocean animals. Upon completion of the unit, the students will have a general understanding of where each ocean is located and which animals live in the individual oceans.
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In groups, students will design a presentation that will trace the development of an organ system through the major phyla of the animal kingdom looking for the relationships between structure and function by documenting adaptations. This lesson is also available on the Learn NC website.
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Particle Theory

by Orit Kapon

Simulation how particles behave in different states of matter. Shows how temperature is the speed of movement of the particles
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A Tour of the Universe

by Meredith Beaton

This semester of science focuses on a linear exploration of our universe. Students begin by exploring the history of astronomical thought, our current understanding of the universe, the structure of the solar system, and ending with a study of our home planet, Earth.
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Cause and Effect

by Gabriel Hurley

Using James Burke's online Knowledge Web software, students can gain a better understanding of technological effects on society while exploring history in an interactive, non-hierarchical way.
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A Matter of Chocolate

by Sarah Wostbrock

A Social Studies and Science Integrated Thematic Unit on the History and Chemistry of Chocolate
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This unit is designed as an educational option for gifted students in a regular education Science classroom. Video games are of high interest among adolescents and when used appropriately, can be an exciting part of the learning process, particularly in Science. This unit utilizes Scratch, a user-friendly programming language available for free via MIT, which allows students to intuitively develop games. The teacher and student work together to decide the content focus, then the student monitors their own progress by blogging as he/she develops a video game based in some way on that content. Students are then able to share their game in an authentic environment, which allows for revision and evaluation. *This unit requires the use of a computer with Internet access and waiver of class assignments.
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This unit is designed as an educational option for gifted students in a regular education Science classroom. This unit addresses Ohio Academic Content Standards in the area of Earth and Space Sciences, particularly in the area of Plate Tectonics. It is also an interdisciplinary unit, incorporating Social Studies, Math and Technology standards ll. In it, students will build knowledge about the topic through focused web searches and then synthesize the information by creating a short documentary describing a famous earthquake or volcanic eruption. The documentary will describe the movement of the plates as well as the human drama that unfolds during natural disasters. This video can also be submitted to eTech as part of a video competition or to ThinkQuest if completed as a website. *This project requires the use of the Internet, and depending on student choice, the access to video cameras and other tools to aid in the creation of a movie. This project will also require time out of class.
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Assessments

by Lauren Angelone

This folder contains all formative and summative assessment rubrics for the Plate Tectonics Documentary Project. These assessments are also embedded within the unit.
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CSI: Protein Synthesis

by Robert Lucas

The year is 2023 and someone has robbed a casino in Las Vegas, and DNA has been recovered. Students are provided with a sequence from the DNA and a key telling which amino acids code for which physical characteristics. They decode the DNA into mRNA, then into amino acids, and then into physical characteristics. Finally, they draw a sketch. This is a lot of fun, but I'm afraid it gives the impression that genes map more directly to phenotypes than they actually do (as with the God gene, the Alzheimers gene, etc). What do others think? Can that be minimized? This resource is part of the Developing Biology course which contains units on Microscopes; Biochemistry; Cells; Cellular Transport; DNA; Photosynthesis and Respiration; Mitosis and Meiosis; Genetics; and Evolution.
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Project: Edible Cell

by Robert Lucas

In this project, students make a cell, including organelles, out of edible materials. This folder contains a rubric and student planning worksheet. This resource is part of the Developing Biology course which contains units on Microscopes; Biochemistry; Cells; Cellular Transport; DNA; Photosynthesis and Respiration; Mitosis and Meiosis; Genetics; and Evolution.
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Refraction of Light

by Andy Hannaford

Lodestar presentation on the sceince topic of Light
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This is a unit consisting of 4 lessons in building structures to design specifications. It was written with North Carolina curriculum goals but meets National Science Education Standards "Science and Technology-Content Standard E" for 5th-8th grade. Students will move from the construction of a spaghetti cantilever, to a paper skyscrapper, to a crash test wall and finally build and test earthquake proof houses. The materials needed are simple and inexpensive. This is a wonderful introduction for students to the world of engineering.
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Acids, Bases & Salts

by Robert Lucas

This unit includes resources, such as slideshows, worksheets, labs, and quizzes, on Acids, Bases, & Salts for high school chemistry students. This unit is part of the Chemistry course.
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Of course, I am not advocating that the scientific method takes the place of scientific inquiry, however, if you are looking for a few good activities for reviewing variables, graphs, and procedures....
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This is a jeopardy game to review naming and formula writing of ionic and covalent compounds as well as acids
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This resource is a PowerPoint presentation on atomic theory. It covers history from Democritus to Dalton, subatomic particles, atomic mass, atomic number, ions, and isotopes. This resource is part of the Chemistry course which contains units on Lab Setup and Safety; Nomenclature; Chemical Reactions and Balancing; Metric Systems & Conversions; Periodic Table and Trends; Atomic Structure; Nuclear Chemistry; Acids, Bases, & Salts; Bonding; Percent Composition; Solutions, Molarity, and Concentrations; Stoichiometry; Energy; Gas Laws; Reaction Rates and Equilibrium; Electron Configuration; and Redox Reactions.
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A powerpoint and note sheet on types of reactions complete with demos.
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This collection contains a number of animations demonstrating various scientific principles, activities, and experiments relating to gases, states of matter, the structure of an atom, conductivity, electricity, and light.
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Investigation Backpack

by Bob and George

Investigation Backpack is a column by Bob Albrecht and Brian Hanna in The Oregon Mathematics Teacher (TOMT), the journal of the Oregon Council of Teachers of Mathematics (OCTM). In TOMT, we briefly describe intertwingled math and science investigations, and we post additional information at www.curriki.org (search key: investigation) OCTM: www.octm.org TOMT: www.octm.org/TOMT.html Email: InvestigationBP@aol.com
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Curated Collections

by Meredith Phillips

In these collections, Curriki members have chosen a subject they are passionate about, collected all of the available Curriki resources, and searched outside the system to add more open source materials and links. The subjects of the collections are: Science Fairs Writing Research Papers The Constitution First Year of Teaching
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Ergonomic Chair Design

by Clint Rickert

This is an open-ended design brief that is planned to take 5 days either in or out of the classroom. Students work in small groups and must research and develop a new chair design.
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The Undersea Adventures of Capt’n Eli lesson plans were created by award-winning Maine educator and technology integrationist Laura Richter. This curriculum was designed for elementary and middle school teachers. The lesson plans provide an interdisciplinary experience where students learn language arts, geography mapping, scientific research techniques, ancient mythology, world history, art, and communication skills. Authentic assessment strategies, technology integration, 21st century skills, and real life learning are all integral to the learning process embedded in these lessons. For Maine educators, Maine Learning Results standards are also included along with each lesson.
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KS 3 Science: Light

by Andy Hannaford

Lodestar materials to support the teaching of light.
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The Earth is a dynamic system, constantly changing through a multitude of systems; the geologic, hydrologic, atmospheric and biologic systems are all integral to one another. Despite the fact that we inhabit this blue planet many of us are unaware of how even the simplest of systems work between one another and how even a small perturbation in one system can ripple through them all. The curriculum that follows will outline the systems of the earth and draw upon their interconnectedness to bring about a new found understanding of our environment and the critical modern day issues we are facing now and in the future. Through a multitude of hands-on and investigative lessons and activities this series will help students take their prior knowledge and combine it with new understandings and conflicts to ultimately apply the information gained in the local communities for a culminating environmental action project. This curriculum is meant for students who have already progressed through some earth science classes. There are many lessons within the collection that can be pulled out and used separately from the curriculum as a whole. The 5th Unit covers many topics addressed in a book called The Revenge of Gaia: Earth's Climate Crisis & The Fate of Humanity, by James Lovelock, 160 pages with glossary. I recommend this as a reading for the semester, especially during Unit 5 though it is not a requirement to follow the science or the lessons. The Revenge of Gaia, James Lovelock, 2006 ISBN-13: 978-0-465-04168-8 ISBN-10: 0-465-04168-X British ISBNs: 978-0-713-99914-3; 0-713-99914-4
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This final unit will address issues of the environment on a small town scale to national and worldwide dilemmas. Students will be asked to draw upon the content learned in the previous four units and build on it through a series or research projects.
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An introduction to ideas of the beginnings of life, evolution and mass extinctions.
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Unit 3: Earth's Atmosphere

by Kimberly Handle

A brief overview of the Earth's current atmosphere, theories of past atmospheric compositions and an introduction to anthropogenic impacts on the atmosphere today.
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Unit 2: Weather and Water

by Kimberly Handle

This unit offers lessons on weather, climate, deep ocean circulation and the role of water in erosion.
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Unit 1: Our Physical Earth

by Kimberly Handle

An brief introduction to so of the Earth's dynamic geophysical processes.
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How Are Stars Like People?

by David Rothstein

In this activity, students will learn about populations of stars by making an analogy with human populations. They will graph properties of humans and stars (the latter using real astronomical data) and look for relationships between the properties they graph. Finally, they will determine what can be learned about each population using this technique and decide ways in which the technique is limited. This activity serves as an introduction to stellar astronomy, but it also works as an illustration of the general methods that scientists use when confronted with a new set of data that they are trying to understand. The activity is aimed at a high school audience, but it could easily be modified for use with middle school students. The essential activities can be covered in 40 minutes, or the entire project can be stretched to 4 hours or even much longer. (The activity is broken up into several sections that teachers are free to select from, and time estimates for each section are included.) This resource is hosted by the Cornell Science Inquiry Partnerships (CSIP) program.
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Patent It Now!

by Christina K.

Fun and educational way to learn how real patents are granted.
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Archaeology and Erosion

by CyArk CyArk Education Program

Students will use real archaeological data to create a scale model of Tikal Temple 1, a Mayan pyramid, using sugar cubes. Students will then set up and conduct a scientific experiment using their sugar cube models to investigate the process of erosion and its effects on archaeological sites.
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drug investigation

by Kathleen Duhl

This is an outline to follow for middle school students to investigate/research a drug.
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Archimedes' Principle: Whatever Floats Your Boat?

by ALTEC The University of Kansas

This project was a culminating performance task for a unit on fluid dynamics, density and Archimedes' principle.
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BioEthics

by Tim Kellers Kellers-NJIT

This is the BioEthics Curriculum Archive. Includes a World Health Organization role-playing activity on the use of Golden Rice.
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This is the first unit (Chemistry of Life) with embedded documents and links. Students will explore proper safety procedures, lab writing skills and measurement. Students will also learn about the four major types of organic molecules, the functions of proteins in cells and the factors influence the structure and function of enzymes.
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What is weather?

by Marissa Roberto

This is an interactive website where students can learn about the different things that make up weather: wind direction, wind force, precipitation, temperature, sunshine, visibility, clouds.
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High School Chemistry

by Sandy Kliewer

Resources I use in my high school chemistry course aimed a juniors and seniors. We use the Holt Modern Chemistry textbook.
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This document serves as background information for those teachers who are new to teaching science, as well as for any teacher that feels he or she needs a little reminder about the goals and terminology of the scientific process. Curriki community members are encouraged to edit this resource to include their own expertise!
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Rocks and Minerals

by Sarah Lamphier

This is a 5th grade science unit on rocks and minerals.
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Invent Now.

by Christina K.

Inspire your students through problem-solving exercises, exploration, creativity and the inventive process. At the same time engage them in learning about the intellectual property protections of patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets. This site is run by the United States Patent and Trademark Office, The Advertising Council, and the National Inventors Hall of Fame Foundation, Inc. Professional development training for teachers is available through i-SAFE's i-LEARN Online video-based training modules. Just watch the Intellectual Property module, which includes an entire chapter about Patents and Trademarks.
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Video Rubric

by science28 panama

A rubric to help the students make visible our invisible expectations. It was created as an assessment for a Science Video Project, but can be modified for use with other video projects.
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This single animation uses a cartoon character to solve a "cannonball" problem (projectile motion) using basic Physics and Mathematics. The problem: A cannon is fired at a ship 1000 meters away. The cannon is raised to an elevation of 30 degrees, and the velocity of the cannonball as it leaves the barrel is known to be 300 m/s. Does the cannonball hit the ship, and if not, by how much does it fall short or long?
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A middle school activity that promotes environmental protection. Students will research contemporary issues using a variety of sources, use that information to create an original persuasive pieces, and then create four songs based on environmental topics.
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Chemistry 30 (Alberta, Canada - Grade 12) Notes on Enthalpy and Heat. A basic set of notes, please expand and add questions.
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This is a PowerPoint presentation that introduces forces and Newton's Laws of motion. The information included in the presentation is the basis for more advanced force problems encountered in an introductory high school physics course.
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Bridges

by kraig kherrel

Whenever we travel anywhere we see bridges. Long bridges and short bridges. Low ones and high ones. But what kind of bridges are they and what are they made of?
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Resources for teaching high school science, created by Teach for America teachers and alumni.
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Developing Biology

by Robert Lucas

This course contains resources for teaching high school biology, from Developing Curriculum, Inc. It includes activities, labs, slide shows and worksheets on the topics of: Microscopes; Biochemistry; Cells; Cellular Transport; DNA; Photosynthesis and Respiration; Mitosis and Meiosis; Genetics; and Evolution.
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Systems of the Human Body

by Mr. Bigley Mr. Bigs

These worksheets are on the systems of the human body. Questions were added to diagrams to allow students to see and read about the different parts.
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This is a collection of activities that can be used in any classroom from about 6th grade through College. They go from simple ice breakers to advanced exercises in encryption. Each activity is about one hour. They are primarily centered around engineering and scientific topics.
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Some of the documents that I use at the beginning of the year and an introduction to lab safety.
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Bug Blitz

by Lauren Klein

The Bug Blitz is the idea of renowned naturalist and scholar Professor Edward O. Wilson of Harvard University. Students and teachers combine to focus on the issues that surround biodiversity. No prior experience is necessary for this activity. The only requirements are curiosity and collaboration-- and, of course, the XO. Students will work with each other to collect, describe, record, and compare the living and non-living things in their particular "hot spot." They will identify issues, create new ways to present their information, and deliver messages about knowledge gained. In addition, they will develop a whole new appreciation and respect for bugs. Combining the arts and science in this way will allow students to develop an understanding of biodiversity as well as help their region have a sustainable future.
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A worksheet introducing the basic concepts of photosynthesis and respiration.
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Biology: Mitosis

by Tera Hinzman

chromosomes, chromatids, centromere, Cell Cycle, Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis, cancer
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This unit is designed as an educational option for gifted students in a regular education Science classroom. This unit addresses Ohio Academic Content Standards in the area of Earth and Space Sciences, particularly in the area of Plate Tectonics. It is also an interdisciplinary unit, incorporating Social Studies Technology standards as well. In it, students will build knowledge about the topic through focused web searches and then synthesize the information by creating a short documentary describing a famous earthquake or volcanic eruption. The documentary will describe the movement of the plates as well as the human drama that unfolds during natural disasters. This video can also be submitted to eTech as part of a video competition.
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This unit is designed as an educational option for gifted students in a regular education Science classroom. Video games are of high interest among adolescents and when used appropriately, can be an exciting part of the learning process, particularly in Science. This unit utilizes Scratch, a user-friendly programming language available for free via MIT, which allows students to intuitively develop games. The teacher and student work together to decide the content focus, then the student monitors their own progress by blogging as he/she develops a video game based in some way on that content. Students are then able to share their game in an authentic environment, which allows for revision and evaluation.
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Inquiry with Anything

by Virginia Malone

Science Inquiry lesson that allows students to ask and answer questions using simple experimental techniques. The method used can be expanded requiring students to provide stronger proof for their answers.
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An activity that allows students to investigate some of their own questions on acids and bases. For a description of how to encourage students to ask questions that can be answered by experimentation check out Inquiry with Anything at Curriki. An added bonus is a link to the Nature of Science.
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Lab: Fish Stations

by Robert Lucas

In this activity, students watch several different types of fish and make observations. This was used as preparation for the Design a Fish project, but it can also be used separately. This resource is part of the Design a Fish lesson plan.
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This site allows you to click on different properties of minerals: hardness, luster, cleavage, streak, color etc and learn about each one. It also lets you explore minerals you may find in your home virtually.
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Our Changing Earth: Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Tsunamis is a 6th grade Science unit to teach students how these three events have changed and still change and shape our earth. This unit is inter-disciplinary covering math, science, language arts, and technology.
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There are many Olympic events in which participants travel a designated distance as fast as they can. The Competitor who covers the distance in the least time wins the gold medal. Here are nine pages of distance and time data selected from the 2008 Olympics events: swimming, track, rowing, canoe/kayak, and cycling.
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On this site, you can walk through a fictional Virginia forest, and use scientific tools and methodologies to determine the forest makeup, monitor its health, and conserve its biodiversity. Each walk opens with an animated entrance into the forest in a different season. Guide characters from Smithsonian’s National Zoo assist the user and encourage inquiry. This resource is part of the Biology Links for One Laptop Per Child course which contains units on Exploring Life; The Cell; Genetics; Mechanisms of Evolution; The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity; Plant Form and Function; Animal Form and Function; Ecology; and Astrobiology.
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Project-based learning stations that help students bridge observations to algebraic concepts through semester-long inquiries (each inquiry takes about a week). Once the class has completed the eight inquiries, the teacher may guide them through the inquiries again, exploring new patterns, variables and functions at a more complex level.
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www.OneHen.org is a microfinance website for kids, with fun games and a virtual market, as well as lesson plans for teachers and librarians. The website is based on a children's book about a real boy in Africa who gets a loan to buy a hen, which over time turns into a thriving business - all because of a small loan to buy one brown hen. On the website kids can read the story, and read and see pictures and videos of real microentrepreneurs around the world in countries like Ghana, Brazil, Mexico and even immigrants in the U.S., and play games such as memory. Kids can donate "beads" won from the games to actual microentrepreneurs in developing countries through the virtual market, and as kids contribute they will see virtual businesses grow before their eyes. It's a beautifully designed website that aims to inspire good in kids while providing entertainment, and has great materials for teachers to teach their kids about topics ranging from world geography to community service to African culture to math to economics to business to global citizenship.
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Design a Fish

by Robert Lucas

Throughout this lesson, students imagine they are a scientist who has discovered a new species of fish. They design the fish according to what they have learned about existing types of fish. This project was created by user 'Ms. Frizzle' and initially posted under a Creative Commons license at teacherslounge.editme.com.
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Journal Article Review

by Jamie Lovitt

This assignment is designed to integrate literacy in the content area, combining research and writing practice with interesting science topics of the students' choosing. It is also designed to act as a catalyst for discussion about why journals are different from other types of writing, though I have allowed students to use high quality scientific magazines for articles to review. I require students to use a formal writing style for this project and go in-depth about what formal writing entails.
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Mitosis flip book

by Jamie Lovitt

This is a very cool assignment that helps the students "see" the phases of mitosis (and the larger cell cycle). It is project based, which helps with classroom management! The essence of the flip book is that the students draw the changes happening very slowly on the different pages of the book, so that when the pages are flipped through, the Cell Cycle happens seamlessly! The students love it.
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In this 4-6 week unit of study middle school students will explore the dynamics of Earth. They will explore the layers of the earth, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis as well as having the opportunity to interact with each other using technology based lesson plans. The class will research to major historical events that involve earthquakes (Great Chilean Earthquake), volcanoes (Pompeii), and Tsunamis. The students will present the data they discover that scientifically shows the geological factors that are linked with each event.
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This resource is a PowerPoint presentation to be given early in a chemistry class. This particular version is meant to review concepts of atomic structure already learned the previous year. This resource is part of the Chemistry course which contains units on Lab Setup and Safety; Nomenclature; Chemical Reactions and Balancing; Metric Systems & Conversions; Periodic Table and Trends; Atomic Structure; Nuclear Chemistry; Acids, Bases, & Salts; Bonding; Percent Composition; Solutions, Molarity, and Concentrations; Stoichiometry; Energy; Gas Laws; Reaction Rates and Equilibrium; Electron Configuration; and Redox Reactions.
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Chemistry

by Robert Lucas

This course contains resources, including slideshows, reviews, labs, worksheets, activities, quizzes, and diagnostics, for high school chemistry students. Units include Lab Setup and Safety; Nomenclature; Chemical Reactions and Balancing; Metric Systems & Conversions; Periodic Table and Trends; Atomic Structure; Nuclear Chemistry; Acids, Bases, & Salts; Bonding; Percent Composition; Solutions, Molarity, and Concentrations; Stoichiometry; Energy; Gas Laws; Reaction Rates and Equilibrium; Electron Configuration; and Redox Reactions.
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Digestion and the Food Chain

by Micki Halsey Randall

Students begin with a brief exploration of biomes. Then, as a class, the students choose a specific biome and examine a food web within it. This will lead to a discussion about predator/prey relationships. Students will develop an understanding of the differences within the digestive systems of different organisms and how the foods eaten correspond to the digestive system and biome of each organism. Finally, we examine the digestive system of humans in detail. The culminating event is a pop-up book about human digestion.
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A rubric to help students in making visible our invisible expectations.
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A rubric for their written report would be helpful in making visible those invisible expectations. It was created as an assessment for a Science Video Project, but can used with other science projects.
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This is a great site for students to apply their knowledge of the curriculum and meet the standards in both Math and Science.
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Photosynthesis

by Doug Copeland

A cartoon character describes photosynthesis in plants, including the basic chemical equation of photosynthesis.
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Combustion Engine

by Doug Copeland

A cartoon character describes the operation of the combustion engine.
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Mass and Volume

by Micki Halsey Randall

To familiarize students with basic lab skills, as well as integrate math into science, we begin this unit with two hands on laboratory activities. Students will learn the techniques of massing objects, measuring volume and displacement, and identifying the meniscus of a liquid. The difference between mass and weight is addressed, and demonstrated through the use of differences in gravity on other planets. Finally, students will design an experiment to determine the volume of a paperclip.
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Acids and Bases

by Micki Halsey Randall

In an introductory letter, students are asked to help develop a warning poster and pH scale of the items in their kitchen. In order to accomplish this, students will need to learn about acids, bases, and pH levels. Several labs and activities, as well as notes, help students to develop the knowledge needed to complete the final project, the poster.
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Using a video as an introduction to the unit, many aspects of global warming and climate change are brought to the forefront. This is a heated debate in our society, so why not debate it in class? We do. Students break into groups for and against the idea humans must work to solve global warming right now. Both groups are provided the same informational resources in class and the rules for class debates. After the debate, students write a reaction and personal opinion paper about global warming.
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Shapes and Colors Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Shapes, forms, and colors introduces students to both two dimensional shapes and three dimensional forms. Students are also given the opportunity to work with primary colors to form secondary colors. Color tints and shades are also explored. The skills of observing, discussing, describing, predicting, and classifying are used throughout the unit. Integrated hands-on math activities are also included in this kit. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in Classroom plants introduces elementary students to the life cycle of plants through observing, growing, and caring for common plants under a variety of conditions. Opportunities are provided for plants to be grown from seeds, cuttings, and roots. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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My Body, My Health - Nutrition and Digestion

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Students will examine the parts of the USDA Food Pyramid, journal their food choices and analyze those choices, identify the variety of foods to be eaten from each food group, and read and compare food labels for nutritional value. They will also describe and demonstrate the functions of the major parts of the digestive system. The skills emphasized in the kit are brainstorming, discussing, collecting data, interpreting data, making decisions, generalizing, classifying, measuring, and analyzing. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Simple Machines Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Machines are devices that help make the work of society easier. Machines make work easier by changing the size and/or direction of the force that is applied. There are six simple machines – inclined plane, wedge, screw, lever, pulley, and wheel-and-axle. Simple machines can be combined in all kinds of ways to create the machines we use everyday. The science skills emphasized in Simple Machines are collecting data, manipulating, constructing models, observing, and predicting. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Schoolyard Studies Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

This unit provides students with the opportunity to develop a better understanding of the interdependence of the natural world through careful observation of a given area in the schoolyard. Special emphasis will be placed on observing, describing, collecting data, interpreting data, and discussing. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Weather Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

This unit provides students with the opportunity to observe weather phenomena. Students will use instruments to gather weather data on temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and precipitation. The water cycle is also demonstrated and discussed. Students will investigate the relationship between the earth’s rotation, revolution, time, and seasons. The science skills emphasized in the Weather kit are observing, collecting data, organizing data, interpreting data, and discussing. Integrated hands-on math activities are also included in this kit. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Health: Body Senses Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Students will develop body awareness through the use of different body parts. The body part associated with each sense is examined and diagramed. Diseases and impairments of the senses are defined and explored. The skills emphasized in the kit are observing, discussing, manipulating materials, and describing. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Measuring Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Students will use standard and non-standard units of measurement and measuring tools to compare various measurements of objects in terms of mass, length, capacity, and area. Integrated hands-on math activities are also included in this kit. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Waterplay Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

This unit provides students with the opportunity to observe the properties of water and explore with water. Students will observe objects that sink and float in water, compare volumes of water in different size containers, describe the states water is found in, and observe water absorption and objects dissolving in water. The unit ends with an exploration of how soap effects water and making bubbles. The science skills emphasized in Waterplay are observing, discussing, describing, predicting, gathering data, questioning, and interpreting data. Integrated hands-on math activities are also included in this kit. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Classroom Plants Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Classroom plants introduces elementary students to the life cycle of plants through observing, growing, and caring for common plants under a variety of conditions. Opportunities are provided for plants to be grown from seeds, cuttings, and roots. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in Classroom plants introduces elementary students to the life cycle of plants through observing, growing, and caring for common plants under a variety of conditions. Opportunities are provided for plants to be grown from seeds, cuttings, and roots. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Health: My Body Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Students will develop body awareness through the use of different body parts. Students will learn about the different ways we care for our body. The senses are explored in-depth, as well as the body part associated with each sense. The skills emphasized in the kit are observing, discussing, manipulating materials, predicting, and describing. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in Classroom plants introduces elementary students to the life cycle of plants through observing, growing, and caring for common plants under a variety of conditions. Opportunities are provided for plants to be grown from seeds, cuttings, and roots. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Sunshine and Shadows Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Sunshine and Shadows allows students to explore shadows. Students will observe how shadows form, how light effects objects, and how shadows change throughout the day. Through the use of the skills of observing, communicating, and manipulating, students will investigate the properties of shadows. Integrated hands-on math activities are also included in this kit. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in Classroom plants introduces elementary students to the life cycle of plants through observing, growing, and caring for common plants under a variety of conditions. Opportunities are provided for plants to be grown from seeds, cuttings, and roots. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Insects Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Insects introduces students to the cricket and the ant. Students create habitats for these insects in their classroom. Students then investigate the cricket’s and ant’s home, food, preferences, body structure, and life cycle. Students identify the body parts necessary for an animal to be an insect and classify animals based on their characteristics. The skills of observing, discussing, describing, predicting, comparing, and classifying are used throughout the unit. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in Classroom plants introduces elementary students to the life cycle of plants through observing, growing, and caring for common plants under a variety of conditions. Opportunities are provided for plants to be grown from seeds, cuttings, and roots. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Properties Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Through the use of the skills of observing, classifying, and communicating students will investigate the properties of objects. Students will observe and describe objects by their color, shape, texture, size, weight, and ability to sink or float. Students will observe that objects can exist in different forms and that solids, liquids, and gases are objects. A variety of teaching strategies are incorporated in this unit. The science skills emphasized in Properties are collecting data, manipulating, observing, and predicting. Integrated hands-on math activities are also included in this kit. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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From Seed to Plant, Egg to Adult Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

From Seed to Plant, Egg to Adult introduces students to the life cycles of plants and animals. Students will classify seeds by properties, plant seeds, care for plants, observe and record plant growth, and participate in classroom projects. Students will also observe the life cycle of a ladybug and participate in the care of a living creature. Integrated hands-on math activities are also included in this kit. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Density Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

This unit provides students with the opportunity to observe the property of density. Students will engage in inquiry about why and how some objects (solids and liquids) display the property of density. Students will measure the mass of solids and liquids. Students will experiment with solids and liquids of different densities. Students will also calculate the density of solids and liquids using hand-held calculators. The science skills emphasized in Density are collecting data, manipulating, observing, and predicting. Accuracy of measurement is critical to the success of this unit. This kit has been divided into two sections and can be completed in several ways. For 4th graders, Learning Experiences 1 – 5 should be completed to meet the state standards. In 6th grade, students should review Learning Experiences 1 – 5 and continue on with Learning Experiences 6 – 8 in order to reach a better understanding of density. It is believed that by 6th grade, students will have a strong enough math base to calculate density and the skills necessary to comprehend density at a higher level. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Habitats Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Students will identify habitats as the place where basic needs are met for the organisms that live there. A study of the plants and animals of the five major biomes of the world will also be studied. Plant and animal adaptations are a focus. Special emphasis will be placed on observing, discussing, describing, predicting, gathering and interpreting data. Integrated hands-on math activities are also included in this kit. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Health: My Body Works Together Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Students will identify major body parts and their functions, identify basic needs of living things, describe how senses help the body, describe the location of the heart and lungs and how they contribute to body function, skeletal parts, and examine how healthy food and exercise contribute to a healthy body.The skills emphasized in the kit are observing, discussing, describing, comparing, classifying, brainstorming, interpreting data, making decisions, manipulating materials, and measuring. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Physical Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

This unit provides students with the opportunity to observe two major types of phenomena in physical science, the states of matter and magnets. Students will observe the three states of matter and how they change from one to another. Students will also explore the properties of magnets. The science skills emphasized in Physical Science are observation, prediction, classifying, creating models, gathering and organizing, and interpreting data. Integrated hands-on math activities are also included in this kit. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Plants and Animals Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Students will complete an in-depth study of plants by examining their stems, roots, and leaves. A study of animals will also be completed. Animals will be grouped according to their major characteristics. Special emphasis will be placed on observing, classifying, collecting data, and predicting. Integrated hands-on math activities are also included in this kit. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Buoyancy Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

This unit provides students with the opportunity to observe the phenomena of buoyancy. Students will engage in inquiry about why some things sink and some things float. Students will explore properties of materials. Students will plan and construct their own floating containers from clay and compare it to containers already constructed. Students will experiment with their boats and the concept of displacement. Students will also measure the buoyant force in water using fishing bobbers and a rubber band scale that they construct out of K’nex. The science skills emphasized in Buoyancy are collecting data, manipulating, observing, and predicting. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Butterflies and Moths Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

This unit provides students with the opportunity to observe the life cycle of butterflies and moths. Although the title implies that moths will be studied, no moth larvae are sent with the unit. Methods of collecting moths and moth larvae are suggested. Students will compare and contrast the similarities and differences in the body structures of butterflies and moths. Humane treatment of animals should be stressed throughout this unit. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Energy Forms and Interactions Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

This unit utilizes a popcorn theme. It was developed to provide an opportunity for students to have enjoyable science experiences focused on Energy Forms and Interactions. This unit will help students recognize that energy and energy interactions cause many of the changes that happen around them. Students will participate in teacher directed experiences where several energy forms and interactions occur including the popping and sprouting of popcorn kernels. The science skills emphasized in the Energy Forms and Interactions kit are observing, collecting data, organizing data, interpreting data, and discussing. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Powders and Crystals Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Powders and Crystals introduces students to chemical and physical properties of familiar substances. Students perform experiments with chemical and physical reactions and chemical indicators. Students learn rules for proper use of chemicals, and eye safety. Skills emphasized are observing, classifying, collecting, interpreting data, communicating, discussing, manipulating, making decisions, generalizing, and formulating hypotheses. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Electrical Circuits Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

This unit provides opportunities for students to carry out learning experiences such as lighting a bulb, constructing a circuit, testing for conductivity, and testing objects for magnetic properties. Psychomotor skills are enhanced through the construction of circuits. The major skills emphasized in this unit are: observing, predicting, manipulating, and replicating. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Solar Systems Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

This unit provides students with the opportunity to research the planetary bodies of our solar system, create models of our solar system, and investigate relationships between the planetary bodies of our solar system. The science skills emphasized in the solar system kit are discussing, observing, creating models, comparing, and predicting. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Rocks Minerals and Landforms Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

The learning experiences in the Rocks and Minerals and Landforms kit support the NYS Intermediate Science Core and its focus on Earth Science. Through the use of the skills of observing, classifying, collecting data, interpreting data, and manipulating data, students will investigate the properties of rocks and minerals. Students will observe and test rocks and/or minerals for color, texture, layers, cleavage, streak, reaction with hydrochloric acid, attraction to magnets, and conductivity of electricity. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Rocketry Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Model rockets provide the opportunity for students to study basic concepts in trigonometry, electricity, aerodynamics, physics, and weather. In addition, students will learn the importance of safety while dealing with rockets and launch systems. Skills emphasized are creating models, generalizing, formulating hypotheses, identifying variables, inferring, interpreting data, making decisions, manipulating, measuring, observing, recording data, replicating and using numbers. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Crayfish Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

This unit provides the opportunity for students to observe the structures and behavior of crayfish. Students will identify physical characteristics, reaction to stimuli, feeding habits, and territorial behavior. Science skills emphasized in Crayfish are observing, predicting, discussing, describing, measuring, gathering and interpreting data. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Ecosystems Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

This unit provides students with the opportunity to study an aquatic habitat. Students will conduct various tests on a chosen aquatic site and analyze that data. Special emphasis will be placed on observing, measuring, describing, gathering, organizing data, and interpreting data. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Meet the Creatures Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

“Meet the Creatures” stimulates students to ask questions about the observable behavior of an unfamiliar organism and then directs them to ways of finding answers for themselves. As students observe and experiment, they learn some things about the process of scientific inquiry and about the sensory perception of the mealworm. The skills emphasized in this unit are: observing, collecting and organizing data, measuring, predicting, formulating hypotheses, identifying variables and inferring. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Electromagnetism Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Electromagnetism provides learning experiences through which students can develop an understanding of the properties of magnets and the relationship between magnets and circuits. Students will develop psychomotor skills as they construct electromagnets, buzzers, simple motors, and a complicated motor. The science skills emphasized in Electromagnetism are manipulating, replicating, inferring, formulating hypotheses, predicting, and measuring. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Looking at Liquids Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

Students will investigate the properties of various liquids (e.g. adhesion, cohesion, heaping, surface tension, mass, density) throughout the course of this unit. Special emphasis will be placed on observing, manipulating, communicating, collecting data, and predicting. As the students gain experience, they will develop understanding of the properties of liquids. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area.The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Natures Forces Simple Machines Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

A force is a push or a pull. Forces differ in their strength. All motion (change in position or direction) is caused by force. Forces may have different names, for example, friction, gravity, electromagnetic, and centrifugal force. Simple, compound, or complex machines are devices that help make the work easier by changing the size and/or direction of the force that is applied. There are six simple machines – inclined plane, wedge, screw, lever, pulley, and wheel-and-axle. Simple machines can be combined in all kinds of ways to create the machines we use everyday. The science skills emphasized in Nature’s Forces Simple Machines are collecting data, manipulating, constructing models, observing, and predicting. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Terrariums and Vivariums Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

The study of plants and animals in Terrariums and Vivariums provides students with the opportunities to observe three different environments: woodland, desert, and tropical. Students will assist in building and furnishing three simulated habitats with living organisms. Students will observe the growth and interactions of plants and animals, introduce variables, and study the effect of variables on living organisms. The teacher may choose to add animals to the terraria, thus turning the terraria - environments for plants to vivaria - environments for plants and animals. Humane treatment of animals should be stressed throughout the following learning experiences. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Rocks, Fossils, and Dinosaurs Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

The learning experiences in the Rocks, Fossils, and Dinosaurs kit supports the New York State Elementary Science Core and its focus on understanding the living environment and physical setting. Through the use of the skills of observing, classifying, collecting data, interpreting data, and manipulating data, students will investigate the properties of rocks, fossils, and dinosaurs. Students will observe and classify rocks and fossils for the basic properties of color, size, shape, and texture. Many of the rocks and fossils in this kit have their origin in New York State. Integrated hands-on math activities are also included in this kit. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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Incubation and Embryology Science Kit

by Cattaraugus Allegany BOCES Math Science Technology Dept

The goal of the incubation and embryology kit is to help students observe the mystery of life and learn some of the principles of reproduction. This resource kit provides an opportunity for youth to work with living, growing chick embryos. A secondary, but equally important objective is to provide teachers with an interesting and unique educational tool. Not only is the incubation and embryology kit fun, but it also opens many opportunities for learning. This collection is available as downloadable PDFs, but portions of the content are found in wiki format (see WIKI Learning Experiences and Resources) which can be edited or built up with other materials on the same topic by members of the Curriki community. More About CABOCES Welcome to the Math, Science, and Technology Department (MST) of Cattaraugus Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services (CA BOCES). As a department of Instructional Support Services (ISS), we provide Math, Science, and Technology kits along with support services to meet the needs of the individual districts in our area. The BOCES Teaching and Learning Center at Allegany provides hands-on math, science, and technology kits to over twenty area school districts in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties. Our department provides forty-three different varieties of kit topics. The kits cover topics in math, life science, physical science, chemistry, and earth science. Each kit contains a teacher's manual, student activity book, materials inventory list, instructional video, and materials needed to complete each learning experience. Each kit aligns with the New York State standards and prepares students for the New York State assessments. Contact Information BOCES Teaching & Learning Center @ Allegany Math, Science, Technology & Health Dept. 80 N Fourth St, Third Floor Allegany, NY 14706 Phone: (716)-376-8272; Fax: (716)-372-0621 http://www.caboces.org http://www.mstkits.org http://www.nyreal.org
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In order to resource you will need this visitors code: 68A3A7FF. In this WebQuest, students will be researching the animal that they have chosen and identifying the primary and secondary consumers as well as the primary and secondary producers. To guide their findings they are provided web resources for the students to browse to research their assigned role. Each student in the group is given the opportunity to research and present their own findings. In addition, the students will be creating a comic to illustrate their findings along with a flyer.
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This is a unit consisting of 4 lessons in building structures to design specifications. It was written with North Carolina curriculum goals but meets National Science Education Standards "Science and Technology-Content Standard E" for 5th-8th grade. Students will move from the construction of a spaghetti cantilever, to a paper skyscraper, to a crash test wall and finally build and test earthquake proof houses. The materials needed are simple and inexpensive. This is a wonderful introduction for students to the world of engineering.
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This lesson is about the divide and conquer method of problem solving. It includes examples to help you understand the topic. A problem set with solutions is provided for further practice.
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Dynamic Earth Pop-Up Book

by Micki Halsey Randall

In this 6-week unit, students discover and learn about plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain building, and the relationships between all of them. Students will explore each topic individually using hands on activities, notes, art and poetry. Connections between the topics will be made as the students develop a pop-up book as a culminating activity and formative assessment.
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Hooray For Plants!

by jes2007 jesdavis

This unit is dedicated to the introduction of plants.
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Introduction to Sorting

by NISHANT GUPTA

This lesson is a brief introduction about the sorting mechanism.
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Unit on Plants

by Angela Fleming

This unit is about plants and how they are living things. In this unit the students will discuss the basic needs of a plant and what each plant needs to survive. Also in this unit, the student will learn the different parts of a plant and the function of each part. In addition, the students will conduct an experiment in which they collect, observe and log data in their science journal notebooks. At the end of experiment, the students will present to the class their final project using oral and written responses. I added different resource books and included a KWL chart. Language Arts and Social Studies are secondary topics in this unit.
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Magnets

by Melissa Webber

This unit will introduce students to magnets. It will provide an overview of what a magnet is, what kinds of objects are magnetic, and how magnets are used in everyday life. Students will participate in hands-on activities, using the scientific process to discover answers to their questions about magnets. Lessons include: Lesson #1: What do we Know about Magnets? Lesson #2: Are you Magnetic? (Part 1) Lesson #3: Are you Magnetic? (Part 2) Lesson #4: Magnetic Force Field Lesson #5: The Strength of a Magnet Lesson #6: Exploring Magnetic Poles (Part 1) Lesson #7: Exploring Magnetic Poles (Part 2) Lesson #8: The Power of Magnets Lesson #9: Making a Magnetic Compass Lesson #10: Compass Treasure Hunt Lesson #11: Unit Review and Final Evaluation Unit Resources include: Vocabulary Cards No Magnets Sign KWL Chart Are You Magnetic? Magnetic Force Field The Strength of a Magnet Exploring Magnetic Poles The Power of Magnets Compass Treasure Hunt Magnet Assessment
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This introduction provides a basic idea about what algorithms are and what problems can be solved using algorithms.
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This Electricity and Magnetism unit will help students understand the world around them through inquiry and hands-on experimentation. The major concepts covered will be static electricity, current electricity, magnets / magnetic fields, and electromagnetic induction. The unit takes 3 weeks, averaging 45 minutes a day if meeting 5 days/week. The unit is stand alone and/or could be used to accompany a number of texts. It roughly follows the content and ordering of Holt Science and Technology: Physical Science (2000 edition).
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Handout on the 5 types of reactions. Asks students to give an example (or copy from the board during a lecture). Would work well as guided note-taking or as a practice worksheet.
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Students create a Powerpoint presentation about one organism from each of the five kingdoms. This file includes the directions and rubric.
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In this problem set, you will learn about the solvent properties of water, pH, pKa and buffering capacity. This resource is part of the Biology Links for One Laptop Per Child course which contains units on Exploring Life; The Cell; Genetics; Mechanisms of Evolution; The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity; Plant Form and Function; Animal Form and Function; Ecology; and Astrobiology.
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eSkeletons

by Cynthia Gautreau

The eSkeletons Project website is devoted to the study of human and primate comparative anatomy. It offers a unique set of digitized versions of skeletons in 2-D and 3-D in full color, animations, and much supplemental information. The user can navigate through the various regions of the skeleton and view all orientations of each element along with muscle and joint information. eSkeletons enables you to view the bones of both human and non-human primates ranging from the gorilla to the tiny mouse lemur.
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Saturn Education Guide

by NASA Education

You can now download the final version of the Saturn Educator Guide. You will need Adobe's Acrobat Reader to view the file(s). The text in this publication is based on the Cassini Teacher Guide field test version, previously available from this website and from the Space Science Institute. The field test version has been heavily revised and improved for your use. Or, obtain the entire Saturn Educator Guide in published form (3-hole punched with divider tabs) along with a CD-ROM that includes the guide, a gallery of color images, and a bonus copy of the interactive educational program "Ways of Seeing" for only $15.00 from NASA CORE: http://www.core.nasa.gov. Select "search catalog" and type in Saturn, click on Saturn Educator Guide for details While the lessons are focused on science standards for grades 5 though 8, they may be tailored to higher and lower grade levels. The lessons are supplemented by Enrichments, which can be used to enliven teaching with relevant references to art, language, and mythology.
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This activity looks at Animals Adapting to their Environment. This resource is part of the Biology Links for One Laptop Per Child course which contains units on Exploring Life; The Cell; Genetics; Mechanisms of Evolution; The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity; Plant Form and Function; Animal Form and Function; Ecology; and Astrobiology.
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This exploration allows you to travel to the tiny world of DNA. Beginning with the body and ending with the atoms that make up a single DNA base, you'll be able to zoom in to 15 different levels to see DNA's relationship to us as a whole. Along the way you'll also see the intricate bending and winding that takes place within a chromosome, which allows more than five feet of DNA to fit within the nucleus of a tiny cell. This resource is part of the Biology Links for One Laptop Per Child course which contains units on Exploring Life; The Cell; Genetics; Mechanisms of Evolution; The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity; Plant Form and Function; Animal Form and Function; Ecology; and Astrobiology.
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This brief Flash activity teaches some basic principles of sound (frequency and pitch). It also allows students to review and practice what they have learned.
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9 Evolution

by Robert Lucas

This unit includes resources, such as slideshows, an activity, and labs, on Evolution for high school biology students. This unit is part of the Developing Biology course.
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This application is an interactive Periodic Table. It has been designed as a learning tool to help the beginning high school or undergraduate chemistry student gain insight. It could be used either as a lecture aid or distributed to students.
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This application is an interactive Periodic Table. It has been designed as a learning tool to help the beginning high school or undergraduate chemistry student gain insight. It could be used either as a lecture aid or distributed to students.
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Evolution of Earth

by Micki Halsey Randall

In this 6-week high school unit, students discover and learn about the evolution of earth, its formation, features, and changes over time. Students will explore each topic individually using hands on activities, notes, art and poetry. Connections between the topics will be made as the students develop a pop-up book as a culminating activity and formative assessment.
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This is the first lab of the unit and focuses on charging by friction, attraction/repulsion, polarization of charge and induction.
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Lab 2: Van de Graff

by Zack Moore

This is the second lab of the unit and deals with electric discharge, attraction/repulsion, and induction.
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This is the third lab of the unit and deals with electrostatic charging; friction, conduction, and induction.
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This is the fourth lab of the unit and focuses on potential difference as applied to the electricity/water analogy and basic hands-on DC circuit construction.
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This is the fifth activity of the unit and deals with potential difference, electric current, conductors and insulators, and grounding.
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This is the sixth activity of the unit and deals with electrical energy usage, kilowatt-hours, and power.
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This is the 7th lab of the unit and focus on magnetic poles, two and three dimensional magnetic fields, and magnetic domains. It is a four station lab where students will rotate in lab groups.
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This is the 8th lab of the unit and focus on interactions of electricity and magnetism, electromagnetic induction, electromagnets, speakers, motors and some aspects of sound transmission.
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Oceans Alive!

by Melissa Webber

This unit will give students an overview of oceans. Using hands-on experiments that follow the scientific method, students will learn about currents, tides, ocean zones, and the characteristics of ocean water. Students will also learn about plant and animal life in the ocean, exploring the current dangers of pollution and over-fishing. Lessons include: Lesson #1: Where are the World's Oceans? Lesson #2: What Kin of Water is in the Ocean? Lesson #3: How Dense is Salt Water? Lesson #4: Movement in the Ocean Lesson #5: Ocean Currents Lesson #6: Ocean Zones (Part I) Lesson #7: Ocean Zones (Part 2) Lesson #8: Ocean Food Chain Lesson #9: Where do Ocean Animals Live? Lesson #10: Research Report (Part 1) Lesson #11: Research Report (Part 2) Lesson #12: Threats to Ocean Life Lesson #13: Final Review and Assessment Unit Resources include: Vocabulary Cards KWL Chart World Map Venn Diagram How Dense is Salt Water? Shore Image What Makes a Wave? What Causes Ocean Currents? Ocean Zone Image Ocean Zones Ocean Animals Food Chain Example Ocean Food Chain Ocean Animals 2 Animal Research Report Final Assessment
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Lettuce Experiment

by Norm Lownds

Lettuce evaluation experiment.
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This page includes 1) a definition of open education resources (OERs), 2) links and descriptions of multiple OERs from around the world, 3) stories about how people are using OERs and 4) links to information about OERs and copyright.
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Using an online, interactive map application created from scientific data, students will observe the potential effect of rising sea levels caused by global warming. Students will then conduct their own experiment to observe what would happen if glacial ice were to melt and how it could affect cities. Students will then locate local cities and famous monuments on the online global warming map and write what could happen to these cities if sea levels were to rise. After the lesson, students will discuss way that they can help the environment.
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Landforms - Fold Mountains

by archana samudra

This lesson plan an be used for children of 5th to 9th grade, in order to teach them about the landform of fold mountains. With the example of the Himalayas and its details fold mountains have been explained with help of various diagrams and maps.
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Habitats of Coastal Georgia
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The activities in this guide help students learn the basic principles of flight. The guide is divided into three chapters: --Air. --Flight. --We Can Fly, You and I. The end of each chapter has a list of simple interdisciplinary activities for all elementary subjects. To download the complete Educator's Guide, click here.
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NASA educator guide for pre-K through 2nd grade focuses on activities about the International Space Station and the role rockets play in its construction. To download the complete educator's guide, click here.
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This educational web site is designed for classroom use by teachers and students in Kindergarten through grade 4. It is also designed for homeschool use, and for use by those who are interested learning more about rotorcraft. The web site is actually an on-line, interactive book about one girl's visit with her mother to the rotorcraft research center at which her mother works (using a take your daughter to work scenario). While shadowing her mother at work, Robin Whirlybird learns about the kind of work being done at a NASA Rotorcraft facility. She also learns about the structure and function of different types of rotorcraft and about the science of flight as it pertains to rotorcraft. This educator guide includes the activities: *What is a Model? *How to Rotorcraft Fly? *How do Rotors Make Lift? *Rotorcraft Flight *Rotor Blade Shape and Flight *Long and Short Rotor Blades *Rotor Blade Weight and Flight *The Rotorcraft Challenge *Correlation to Educational Standards
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This 3rd grade lesson is about Thanksgiving so your students will get a better understanding of what it is. The first task to be completed by students is to discuss as a group what they know about Thanksgiving, what they want to know about Thanksgiving, and what they have learned throughout the lesson. Second, the students will learn about the journey on the Mayflower by watching a video that describes what happened on the Pilgrim's long journey. Following the video, the students will take a vocabulary quiz on some of the terms they might have not known before they took the Mayflower tour. Students will then be able to watch a slide show to see what was eaten on the first Thanksgiving. This will help the students to decipher differences of what they eat on Thanksgiving, and what the pilgrims ate. These similarities and differences will be constructed into a Venn Diagram. Schedule library time for your class to research the Pilgrim's lives more in depth. Students can use books, encyclopedias, articles, and other websites to reinforce the information they have already learned. While in the library students can find a skit to act out in groups to express in a dramatized event what they have learned.Lastly, each student will get the opportunity to put in writing what they have learned about the pilgrims and tell their families what they are thankful for. The multiple intelligences addressed will be Interpersonal, verbal-linguistic, and Intrapersonal. Interpersonal is addressed because the lesson has to do with working with others in groups, which helps them to be more outgoing in the future. Verbal-linguistic is addressed because the students will learn to take what they have learned from the website and take notes to construct their Venn diagram. The students will be able to explain the cause and effects of the Pilgrims way of life after completing this lesson. Intrapersonal intelligence is addressed because this helps the students be able to answer the questions of Why did the pilgrims eat what they did? Why is what we eat so much different than what the pilgrims ate? How are our daily lives differently than the Pilgrims?
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Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

by christina monroe

Description: This lesson was created for a course at West Chester University about including the use of technology in the classroom. Students will learn how to reduce, reuse, and recycle to help make their school a go green environment. This lesson is about students learning the importance of recycling, the impact it has on the environment, and ways to reduce, reuse, and recycle items in their school on a regular basis. Students will research the effects of recycling using websites that are provided for them, and they will explore items that can be recycled in their category. They will also device a plan for their school to start or increase recycling. Their plan has to include a specific way that the item they are assigned can be recycled throughout the school. For example, putting paper bins in every classroom for students to recycle scrap paper instead of throwing it away in a trashcan. The students must make a poster explaining their plan creatively by using a poem, song, pictures, etc. They will present their ideas to the class as a group so all of the students learn the effects of each of the categories, and ways to recycle the objects. This webquest gives students the opportunity to use the internet, collaborate with peers, express their art abilities, think critically about affective strategies to actually get people to recycle, and teach their peers about what they have learned. The webquest works to show various students strengths because some students might be better at art and speaking infront of their peers, while others might be better at researching and planing, and so on. Also, students will have the opportunity to get out of their seats and move around to work on their posters and talk to their group members. Students will use their writing skills, critical thinking skills, art abilities, and cooperation skills to complete this webquest. Learner: This webquest is designed for a fourth grade science lesson about recycling. Art is also touched upon because of the poster that students have to create, and their writing skills are used to describe their plan on the poster. Students will need to know what the basic idea of recycling is, how to work in groups, and how to use the computer to make this lesson successful.
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TEACHER PAGE INTRODUCTION: This lesson was developed by future teachers as part of the Educational Technology class at West Chester University in West Chester Pennsylvania. The goal of this lesson is to introduce students to the different types of creatures in the ocean and to help them realize that their are many different species of each type of animal. This lessons main idea is for the students to learn more about marine life. It teaches the students about different forms of marine life living in the sea and the different animals within those categories. There are a couple of different tasks the students will be performing. They will be using the websites provided to research the animal that they have chosen form there characters list. Then once they have found the information they need they will be writing a book on tikatock.com. Each group is to write one book. The multiple intelligences that will be addressed are visual and auditory.Visual will be addressed by viewing the episode of Spongebob along with a teacher instructed lesson and student research. Auditory requirements will be met also through the Spongebob episode and the teacher's lesson. Ultimately the presentation of students completed books will address visual and auditory learning as well. LEARNER: This lesson can be directed toward students in 3rdand 4th grade science and writing classes. Students will need to have a basic understand of the Spongebob Squarepants show as well as a basic understand of marine animal life and the basic workings of a story.
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One of our responsibilities as CTE (Career and Technical Education ) professionals is to improve student enrollment in and completion of nontraditional courses. A major barrier we face in this efforts is encouraging students to step up to the challenge of changing their way of thinking about a stereotypical role – to take the risk of being different. The challenge of changing our way of thinking about stereotypical roles requires us to reflect on our values and beliefs about our world. We tend to stereotype situations based on the biases created by these values and beliefs. Identifying and understanding our biases is an important first step toward changing our attitudes and behaviors; changing how we stereotype our world. These stereotypes determine how we respond to situations. The power of negative stereotypes is believed to impact individuals’ performance and choices. The focus of this presentation is to begin to demonstrate how the roles of gender and race impact the choices and performance of our students.
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One of our responsibilities as CTE professionals is to improve student enrollment in and completion of nontraditional courses. A major barrier we face in this efforts is encouraging students to step up to the challenge of changing their way of thinking about a stereotypical role – to take the risk of being different. The challenge of changing our way of thinking about stereotypical roles requires us to reflect on our values and beliefs about our world. We tend to stereotype situations based on the biases created by these values and beliefs. Identifying and understanding our biases is an important first step toward changing our attitudes and behaviors; changing how we stereotype our world. These stereotypes determine how we respond to situations. The power of negative stereotypes is believed to impact individuals’ performance and choices. The focus of this presentation is to begin to demonstrate how the roles of gender and race impact the choices and performance of our students.
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Chemistry

by Siyavula Siyavula

This collection is a full course of material in the form of a textbook. The textbook is provided by FHSST (Free High School Science Texts). FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. This FHSST Chemistry textbook contains a total of 23 chapters to be used in grades 10 through 12. At the end of this description is a complete Table of Contents. In this collection, you will find folders for each of the main sections (Matter and Materials, Chemical Change, and Chemical Systems). These folders include content across all three grade levels, G10, G11, G12. You will also find folders with just G10, just G11, and just G12 chapters if you are teaching a particular grade. TABLE OF CONTENTS II MATTER AND MATERIALS 1 Classification of Matter - Grade 10 1.1 Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1.1 Heterogeneous mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.1.2 Homogeneous mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.1.3 Separating mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 Pure Substances: Elements and Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2.1 Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2.2 Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.3 Giving names and formulae to substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.4 Metals, Semi-metals and Non-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.1 Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.2 Non-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4.3 Semi-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.5 Electrical conductors, semi-conductors and insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.6 Thermal Conductors and Insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.7 Magnetic and Non-magnetic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2 What are the objects around us made of? - Grade 10 2.1 Introduction: The atom as the building block of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2 Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2.1 Representing molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.3 Intramolecular and intermolecular forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.4 The Kinetic Theory of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.5 The Properties of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3 The Atom - Grade 10 3.1 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.1.1 The Plum Pudding Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.1.2 Rutherford’s model of the atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.1.3 The Bohr Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.2 How big is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.2.1 How heavy is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.2.2 How big is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.3 Atomic structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.3.1 The Electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.3.2 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.4 Atomic number and atomic mass number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3.5 Isotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.5.1 What is an isotope? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.5.2 Relative atomic mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.6 Energy quantisation and electron configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.6.1 The energy of electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.6.2 Energy quantisation and line emission spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.6.3 Electron configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.6.4 Core and valence electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.6.5 The importance of understanding electron configuration . . . . . . . . . 51 3.7 Ionisation Energy and the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.7.1 Ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.7.2 Ionisation Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3.8 The Arrangement of Atoms in the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.8.1 Groups in the periodic table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.8.2 Periods in the periodic table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 4 Atomic Combinations - Grade 11 4.1 Why do atoms bond? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4.2 Energy and bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4.3 What happens when atoms bond? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4.4 Covalent Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4.4.1 The nature of the covalent bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4.5 Lewis notation and molecular structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4.6 Electronegativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 4.6.1 Non-polar and polar covalent bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4.6.2 Polar molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4.7 Ionic Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4.7.1 The nature of the ionic bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4.7.2 The crystal lattice structure of ionic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4.7.3 Properties of Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4.8 Metallic bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4.8.1 The nature of the metallic bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4.8.2 The properties of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4.9 Writing chemical formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.9.1 The formulae of covalent compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.9.2 The formulae of ionic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 4.10 The Shape of Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.10.1 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.10.2 Determining the shape of a molecule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.11 Oxidation numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5 Intermolecular Forces - Grade 11 5.1 Types of Intermolecular Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 5.2 Understanding intermolecular forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 5.3 Intermolecular forces in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 5.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 6 Solutions and solubility - Grade 11 6.1 Types of solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 6.2 Forces and solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 6.3 Solubility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 6.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 7 Atomic Nuclei - Grade 11 7.1 Nuclear structure and stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 7.2 The Discovery of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 7.3 Radioactivity and Types of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 7.3.1 Alpha (_) particles and alpha decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 7.3.2 Beta (_) particles and beta decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 7.3.3 Gamma () rays and gamma decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 7.4 Sources of radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 7.4.1 Natural background radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 7.4.2 Man-made sources of radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 7.5 The ’half-life’ of an element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 7.6 The Dangers of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 7.7 The Uses of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 7.8 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 7.8.1 The Atomic bomb - an abuse of nuclear fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 7.8.2 Nuclear power - harnessing energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 7.9 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 7.10 Nucleosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 7.10.1 Age of Nucleosynthesis (225 s - 103 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 7.10.2 Age of Ions (103 s - 1013 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 7.10.3 Age of Atoms (1013 s - 1015 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 7.10.4 Age of Stars and Galaxies (the universe today) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 7.11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 8 Thermal Properties and Ideal Gases - Grade 11 8.1 A review of the kinetic theory of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 8.2 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and volume of an enclosed gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 8.3 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature of an enclosed gas . . . . . . . . . . . 132 8.4 The relationship between temperature and pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 8.5 The general gas equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 8.6 The ideal gas equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 8.7 Molar volume of gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 8.8 Ideal gases and non-ideal gas behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 8.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 9 Organic Molecules - Grade 12 9.1 What is organic chemistry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 9.2 Sources of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 9.3 Unique properties of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9.4 Representing organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9.4.1 Molecular formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9.4.2 Structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 9.4.3 Condensed structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 9.5 Isomerism in organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 9.6 Functional groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 9.7 The Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 9.7.1 The Alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 9.7.2 Naming the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 9.7.3 Properties of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 9.7.4 Reactions of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 9.7.5 The alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 9.7.6 Naming the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 9.7.7 The properties of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 9.7.8 Reactions of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 9.7.9 The Alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 9.7.10 Naming the alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 9.8 The Alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 9.8.1 Naming the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 9.8.2 Physical and chemical properties of the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 9.9 Carboxylic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 9.9.1 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 9.9.2 Derivatives of carboxylic acids: The esters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.10 The Amino Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.11 The Carbonyl Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 10 Organic Macromolecules - Grade 12 10.1 Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 10.2 How do polymers form? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 10.2.1 Addition polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 10.2.2 Condensation polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 10.3 The chemical properties of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 10.4 Types of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 10.5 Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 10.5.1 The uses of plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 10.5.2 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 10.5.3 Plastics and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 10.6 Biological Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 10.6.1 Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 10.6.2 Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 10.6.3 Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 10.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 III CHEMICAL CHANGE 11 Physical and Chemical Change - Grade 10 11.1 Physical changes in matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 11.2 Chemical Changes in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 11.2.1 Decomposition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 11.2.2 Synthesis reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 11.3 Energy changes in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 11.4 Conservation of atoms and mass in reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 11.5 Law of constant composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 11.6 Volume relationships in gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 11.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 12 Representing Chemical Change - Grade 10 12.1 Chemical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 12.2 Writing chemical formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3 Balancing chemical equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3.1 The law of conservation of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3.2 Steps to balance a chemical equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 12.4 State symbols and other information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 12.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 13 Quantitative Aspects of Chemical Change - Grade 11 13.1 The Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 13.2 Molar Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 13.3 An equation to calculate moles and mass in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . 237 13.4 Molecules and compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 13.5 The Composition of Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 13.6 Molar Volumes of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 13.7 Molar concentrations in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 13.8 Stoichiometric calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 13.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 14 Energy Changes In Chemical Reactions - Grade 11 14.1 What causes the energy changes in chemical reactions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 14.2 Exothermic and endothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 14.3 The heat of reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 14.4 Examples of endothermic and exothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 14.5 Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 14.6 Activation energy and the activated complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 14.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 15 Types of Reactions - Grade 11 15.1 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15.1.1 What are acids and bases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15.1.2 Defining acids and bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15.1.3 Conjugate acid-base pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 15.1.4 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 15.1.5 Acid-carbonate reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 15.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 15.2.1 Oxidation and reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 15.2.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 15.3 Addition, substitution and elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 15.3.1 Addition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 15.3.2 Elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 15.3.3 Substitution reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 15.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 16 Reaction Rates - Grade 12 16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 16.2 Factors affecting reaction rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 16.3 Reaction rates and collision theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 16.4 Measuring Rates of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 16.5 Mechanism of reaction and catalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 16.6 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 16.6.1 Open and closed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 16.6.2 Reversible reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 16.6.3 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 16.7 The equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 16.7.1 Calculating the equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 16.7.2 The meaning of kc values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 16.8 Le Chatelier’s principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.1 The effect of concentration on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.2 The effect of temperature on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.3 The effect of pressure on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 16.9 Industrial applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 16.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 17 Electrochemical Reactions - Grade 12 17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 17.2 The Galvanic Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 17.2.1 Half-cell reactions in the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 17.2.2 Components of the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 17.2.3 The Galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 17.2.4 Uses and applications of the galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 17.3 The Electrolytic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 17.3.1 The electrolysis of copper sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 17.3.2 The electrolysis of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 17.3.3 A comparison of galvanic and electrolytic cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 17.4 Standard Electrode Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 17.4.1 The different reactivities of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 17.4.2 Equilibrium reactions in half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 17.4.3 Measuring electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 17.4.4 The standard hydrogen electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 17.4.5 Standard electrode potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 17.4.6 Combining half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 17.4.7 Uses of standard electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 17.5 Balancing redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 17.6 Applications of electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 17.6.1 Electroplating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 17.6.2 The production of chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 17.6.3 Extraction of aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 17.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS 18 The Water Cycle - Grade 10 18.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 18.2 The importance of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 18.3 The movement of water through the water cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 18.4 The microscopic structure of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.4.1 The polar nature of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.4.2 Hydrogen bonding in water molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.5 The unique properties of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 18.6 Water conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 18.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 19 Global Cycles: The Nitrogen Cycle – Grade 10 19.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 19.2 Nitrogen fixation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 19.3 Nitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 19.4 Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 19.5 Human Influences on the Nitrogen Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 19.6 The industrial fixation of nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 19.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 20 The Hydrosphere - Grade 10 20.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 20.2 Interactions of the hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 20.3 Exploring the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 20.4 The Importance of the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 20.5 Ions in aqueous solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 20.5.1 Dissociation in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 20.5.2 Ions and water hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 20.5.3 The pH scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 20.5.4 Acid rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 20.6 Electrolytes, ionisation and conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 20.6.1 Electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 20.6.2 Non-electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 20.6.3 Factors that affect the conductivity of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 20.7 Precipitation reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 20.8 Testing for common anions in solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.1 Test for a chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.2 Test for a sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.3 Test for a carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 20.8.4 Test for bromides and iodides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 20.9 Threats to the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 20.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 21 The Lithosphere - Grade 11 21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 21.2 The chemistry of the earth’s crust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 21.3 A brief history of mineral use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 21.4 Energy resources and their uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 21.5 Mining and Mineral Processing: Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.2 Mining the Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.3 Processing the gold ore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.4 Characteristics and uses of gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 21.5.5 Environmental impacts of gold mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 21.6 Mining and mineral processing: Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 21.6.1 Iron mining and iron ore processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 21.6.2 Types of iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 21.6.3 Iron in South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 21.7 Mining and mineral processing: Phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 21.7.1 Mining phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 21.7.2 Uses of phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 21.8 Energy resources and their uses: Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 21.8.1 The formation of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 21.8.2 How coal is removed from the ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 21.8.3 The uses of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 21.8.4 Coal and the South African economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 21.8.5 The environmental impacts of coal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 21.9 Energy resources and their uses: Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 21.9.1 How oil is formed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 21.9.2 Extracting oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 21.9.3 Other oil products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 21.9.4 The environmental impacts of oil extraction and use . . . . . . . . . . . 415 21.10Alternative energy resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 21.11Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 22 The Atmosphere - Grade 11 22.1 The composition of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 22.2 The structure of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 22.2.1 The troposphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 22.2.2 The stratosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 22.2.3 The mesosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 22.2.4 The thermosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 22.3 Greenhouse gases and global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 22.3.1 The heating of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 22.3.2 The greenhouse gases and global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 22.3.3 The consequences of global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 22.3.4 Taking action to combat global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 22.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 23 The Chemical Industry - Grade 12 23.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 23.2 Sasol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 23.2.1 Sasol today: Technology and production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 23.2.2 Sasol and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 23.3 The Chloralkali Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 23.3.1 The Industrial Production of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide . . . . . . . 442 23.3.2 Soaps and Detergents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 23.4 The Fertiliser Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 23.4.1 The value of nutrients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 23.4.2 The Role of fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 23.4.3 The Industrial Production of Fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 23.4.4 Fertilisers and the Environment: Eutrophication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 23.5 Electrochemistry and batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 23.5.1 How batteries work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 23.5.2 Battery capacity and energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 23.5.3 Lead-acid batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 23.5.4 The zinc-carbon dry cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 23.5.5 Environmental considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 23.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
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Physics

by Siyavula Siyavula

This collection is a full course of material in the form of a textbook. The textbook is provided by FHSST (Free High School Science Texts). FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. The FHSST Physics textbook contains a total of 31 chapters to be used in grades 10, 11, and 12. At the end of this description is a complete Table of Contents. The textbook is broken into 6 sections: a general introduction (Chapter 1), Grade 10 (Chapters 2-10), Grade 11 (Chapters 11-20), Grade 12 (Chapters 21-31), Exercises, and Essays. In this collection, you will find folders for each of these sections and chapters are found within. CONTENTS I INTRODUCTION Chapter 1: What is Physics? II GRADE 10 - PHYSICS Chapter 2: Units 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Unit Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2.1 SI Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2.2 The Other Systems of Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3 Writing Units as Words or Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4 Combinations of SI Base Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.5 Rounding, Scientific Notation and Significant Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.5.1 Rounding Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.5.2 Error Margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.5.3 Scientific Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.5.4 Significant Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.6 Prefixes of Base Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.7 The Importance of Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.8 How to Change Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.8.1 Two other useful conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.9 A sanity test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.10 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.11 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Chapter 3: Motion in One Dimension - Grade 10 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.2 Reference Point, Frame of Reference and Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.2.1 Frames of Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.2.2 Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.3 Displacement and Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3.3.1 Interpreting Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3.3.2 Differences between Distance and Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3.4 Speed, Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.4.1 Differences between Speed and Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.5 Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.6 Description of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.6.1 Stationary Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3.6.2 Motion at Constant Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.6.3 Motion at Constant Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.7 Summary of Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3.8 Worked Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.9 Equations of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3.9.1 Finding the Equations of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3.10 Applications in the Real-World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.12 End of Chapter Exercises: Motion in One Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Chapter 4: Gravity and Mechanical Energy - Grade 10 4.1 Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 4.1.1 Differences between Mass and Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 4.2 Acceleration due to Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4.2.1 Gravitational Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4.2.2 Free fall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4.3 Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4.4 Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 4.4.1 Checking units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4.5 Mechanical Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.5.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.5.2 Using the Law of Conservation of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4.6 Energy graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 4.8 End of Chapter Exercises: Gravity and Mechanical Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Chapter 5: Transverse Pulses - Grade 10 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 5.2 What is a medium? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 5.3 What is a pulse? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 5.3.1 Pulse Length and Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5.3.2 Pulse Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 5.4 Graphs of Position and Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 5.4.1 Motion of a Particle of the Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 5.4.2 Motion of the Pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 5.5 Transmission and Reflection of a Pulse at a Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 5.6 Reflection of a Pulse from Fixed and Free Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 5.6.1 Reflection of a Pulse from a Fixed End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 5.6.2 Reflection of a Pulse from a Free End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 5.7 Superposition of Pulses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 5.8 Exercises - Transverse Pulses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Chapter 6: Transverse Waves - Grade 10 6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 6.2 What is a transverse wave? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 6.2.1 Peaks and Troughs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 6.2.2 Amplitude and Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 6.2.3 Points in Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 6.2.4 Period and Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 6.2.5 Speed of a Transverse Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 6.3 Graphs of Particle Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 6.4 Standing Waves and Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 6.4.1 Reflection of a Transverse Wave from a Fixed End . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 6.4.2 Reflection of a Transverse Wave from a Free End . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 6.4.3 Standing Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 6.4.4 Nodes and anti-nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 6.4.5 Wavelengths of Standing Waves with Fixed and Free Ends . . . . . . . . 122 6.4.6 Superposition and Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 6.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 6.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Chapter 7: Geometrical Optics - Grade 10 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 7.2 Light Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 7.2.1 Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 7.2.2 Ray Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 7.3 Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 7.3.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 7.3.2 Law of Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 7.3.3 Types of Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 7.4 Refraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 7.4.1 Refractive Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 7.4.2 Snell’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 7.4.3 Apparent Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 7.5 Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 7.5.1 Image Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 7.5.2 Plane Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 7.5.3 Ray Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 7.5.4 Spherical Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 7.5.5 Concave Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 7.5.6 Convex Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 7.5.7 Summary of Properties of Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 7.5.8 Magnification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 7.6 Total Internal Reflection and Fibre Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 7.6.1 Total Internal Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 7.6.2 Fibre Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 7.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 7.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Chapter 8: Magnetism - Grade 10 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 8.2 Magnetic fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 8.3 Permanent magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 8.3.1 The poles of permanent magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 8.3.2 Magnetic attraction and repulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 8.3.3 Representing magnetic fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 8.4 The compass and the earth’s magnetic field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 8.4.1 The earth’s magnetic field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 8.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 8.6 End of chapter exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Chapter 9: Electrostatics - Grade 10 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 9.2 Two kinds of charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 9.3 Unit of charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 9.4 Conservation of charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 9.5 Force between Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.6 Conductors and insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 9.6.1 The electroscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 9.7 Attraction between charged and uncharged objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 9.7.1 Polarisation of Insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 9.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 9.9 End of chapter exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Chapter 10: Electric Circuits - Grade 10 10.1 Electric Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 10.1.1 Closed circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 10.1.2 Representing electric circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 10.2 Potential Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 10.2.1 Potential Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 10.2.2 Potential Difference and Parallel Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 10.2.3 Potential Difference and Series Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 10.2.4 Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 10.2.5 EMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 10.3 Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 10.3.1 Flow of Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 10.3.2 Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 10.3.3 Series Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 10.3.4 Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 10.4 Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 10.4.1 What causes resistance? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 10.4.2 Resistors in electric circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 10.5 Instruments to Measure voltage, current and resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 10.5.1 Voltmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 10.5.2 Ammeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 10.5.3 Ohmmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 10.5.4 Meters Impact on Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 10.6 Exercises - Electric circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 III GRADE 11 – PHYSICS Chapter 11: Vectors 11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 11.2 Scalars and Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 11.3 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 11.3.1 Mathematical Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 11.3.2 Graphical Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 11.4 Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 11.4.1 Relative Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 11.4.2 Compass Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 11.4.3 Bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 11.5 Drawing Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 11.6 Mathematical Properties of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 11.6.1 Adding Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 11.6.2 Subtracting Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 11.6.3 Scalar Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 11.7 Techniques of Vector Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 11.7.1 Graphical Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 11.7.2 Algebraic Addition and Subtraction of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 11.8 Components of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 11.8.1 Vector addition using components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 11.8.2 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 11.8.3 End of chapter exercises: Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 11.8.4 End of chapter exercises: Vectors - Long questions . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Chapter 12: Force, Momentum and Impulse - Grade 11 12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 12.2 Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 12.2.1 What is a force? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 12.2.2 Examples of Forces in Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 12.2.3 Systems and External Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 12.2.4 Force Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 12.2.5 Free Body Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 12.2.6 Finding the Resultant Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 12.2.7 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 12.3 Newton’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 12.3.1 Newton’s First Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 12.3.2 Newton’s Second Law of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 12.3.3 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 12.3.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 12.3.5 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 12.3.6 Different types of forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 12.3.7 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 12.3.8 Forces in equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 12.3.9 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 12.4 Forces between Masses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 12.4.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 12.4.2 Comparative Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 12.4.3 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 12.5 Momentum and Impulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 12.5.1 Vector Nature of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 12.5.2 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 12.5.3 Change in Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 12.5.4 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 12.5.5 Newton’s Second Law revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 12.5.6 Impulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 12.5.7 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 12.5.8 Conservation of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 12.5.9 Physics in Action: Impulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 12.5.10Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 12.6 Torque and Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 12.6.1 Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 12.6.2 Mechanical Advantage and Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 12.6.3 Classes of levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 12.6.4 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 12.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 12.8 End of Chapter exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Chapter 13: Geometrical Optics - Grade 11 13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 13.2 Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 13.2.1 Converging Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 13.2.2 Diverging Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 13.2.3 Summary of Image Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 13.3 The Human Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 13.3.1 Structure of the Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 13.3.2 Defects of Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 13.4 Gravitational Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 13.5 Telescopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 13.5.1 Refracting Telescopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 13.5.2 Reflecting Telescopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 13.5.3 Southern African Large Telescope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 13.6 Microscopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 13.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 13.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Chapter 14: Longitudinal Waves - Grade 11 14.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 14.2 What is a longitudinal wave? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 14.3 Characteristics of Longitudinal Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 14.3.1 Compression and Rarefaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 14.3.2 Wavelength and Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 14.3.3 Period and Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 14.3.4 Speed of a Longitudinal Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 14.4 Graphs of Particle Position, Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration . . . . . . . 359 14.5 Sound Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 14.6 Seismic Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 14.7 Summary - Longitudinal Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 14.8 Exercises - Longitudinal Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Chapter 15: Sound - Grade 11 15.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 15.2 Characteristics of a Sound Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 15.2.1 Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 15.2.2 Loudness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 15.2.3 Tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 15.3 Speed of Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 15.4 Physics of the Ear and Hearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 15.4.1 Intensity of Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 15.5 Ultrasound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 15.6 SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 15.6.1 Echolocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 15.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 15.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Chapter 16: The Physics of Music - Grade 11 16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 16.2 Standing Waves in String Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 16.3 Standing Waves in Wind Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 16.4 Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 16.5 Music and Sound Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 16.6 Summary - The Physics of Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 16.7 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 Chapter 17: Electrostatics - Grade 11 17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 17.2 Forces between charges - Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 17.3 Electric field around charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 17.3.1 Electric field lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 17.3.2 Positive charge acting on a test charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 17.3.3 Combined charge distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 17.3.4 Parallel plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 17.4 Electrical potential energy and potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 17.4.1 Electrical potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 17.4.2 Real-world application: lightning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 17.5 Capacitance and the parallel plate capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 17.5.1 Capacitors and capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 17.5.2 Dielectrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 17.5.3 Physical properties of the capacitor and capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 17.5.4 Electric field in a capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 17.6 Capacitor as a circuit device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 17.6.1 A capacitor in a circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 17.6.2 Real-world applications: capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 17.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 17.8 Exercises - Electrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Chapter 18: Electromagnetism - Grade 11 18.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 18.2 Magnetic field associated with a current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 18.2.1 Real-world applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 18.3 Current induced by a changing magnetic field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 18.3.1 Real-life applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 18.4 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 18.4.1 Real-world applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 18.5 Motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 18.5.1 Real-world applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 18.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 18.7 End of chapter exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Chapter 19: Electric Circuits - Grade 11 19.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 19.2 Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 19.2.1 Definition of Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 19.2.2 Ohmic and non-ohmic conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 19.2.3 Using Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 19.3 Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 19.3.1 Equivalent resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 19.3.2 Use of Ohm’s Law in series and parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 19.3.3 Batteries and internal resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 19.4 Series and parallel networks of resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 19.5 Wheatstone bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 19.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 19.7 End of chapter exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 Chapter 20: Electronic Properties of Matter - Grade 11 20.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 20.2 Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 20.2.1 Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 20.2.2 Insulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 20.2.3 Semi-conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 20.3 Intrinsic Properties and Doping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 20.3.1 Surplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 20.3.2 Deficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 20.4 The p-n junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 20.4.1 Differences between p- and n-type semi-conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 20.4.2 The p-n Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 20.4.3 Unbiased . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 20.4.4 Forward biased . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 20.4.5 Reverse biased . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 20.4.6 Real-World Applications of Semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 20.5 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 IV GRADE 12 – PHYSICS Chapter 21: Motion in Two Dimensions - Grade 12 21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 21.2 Vertical Projectile Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 21.2.1 Motion in a Gravitational Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 21.2.2 Equations of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 21.2.3 Graphs of Vertical Projectile Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 21.3 Conservation of Momentum in Two Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 21.4 Types of Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 21.4.1 Elastic Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 21.4.2 Inelastic Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 21.5 Frames of Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 21.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 21.5.2 What is a frame of reference? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 21.5.3 Why are frames of reference important? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 21.5.4 Relative Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 21.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 21.7 End of chapter exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495 Chapter 22: Mechanical Properties of Matter - Grade 12 22.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 22.2 Deformation of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 22.2.1 Hooke’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 22.2.2 Deviation from Hooke’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 22.3 Elasticity, plasticity, fracture, creep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508 22.3.1 Elasticity and plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508 22.3.2 Fracture, creep and fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508 22.4 Failure and strength of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 22.4.1 The properties of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 22.4.2 Structure and failure of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 22.4.3 Controlling the properties of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 22.4.4 Steps of Roman Swordsmithing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 22.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 22.6 End of chapter exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 Chapter 23: Work, Energy and Power - Grade 12 23.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 23.2 Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 23.3 Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 23.3.1 External and Internal Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 23.3.2 Capacity to do Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 23.4 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 23.5 Important Equations and Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 23.6 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 Chapter 24: Doppler Effect - Grade 12 24.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533 24.2 The Doppler Effect with Sound and Ultrasound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533 24.2.1 Ultrasound and the Doppler Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 24.3 The Doppler Effect with Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 24.3.1 The Expanding Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538 24.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 24.5 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 Chapter 25: Colour - Grade 12 25.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 25.2 Colour and Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 25.2.1 Dispersion of white light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544 25.3 Addition and Subtraction of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544 25.3.1 Additive Primary Colours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544 25.3.2 Subtractive Primary Colours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545 25.3.3 Complementary Colours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 25.3.4 Perception of Colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 25.3.5 Colours on a Television Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547 25.4 Pigments and Paints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 25.4.1 Colour of opaque objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 25.4.2 Colour of transparent objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 25.4.3 Pigment primary colours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 25.5 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550 Chapter 26: 2D and 3D Wavefronts - Grade 12 26.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 26.2 Wavefronts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 26.3 The Huygens Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 26.4 Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 26.5 Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 26.5.1 Diffraction through a Slit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558 26.6 Shock Waves and Sonic Booms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 26.6.1 Subsonic Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563 26.6.2 Supersonic Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563 26.6.3 Mach Cone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 26.7 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 Chapter 27: Wave Nature of Matter - Grade 12 27.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571 27.2 de Broglie Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571 27.3 The Electron Microscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574 27.3.1 Disadvantages of an Electron Microscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577 27.3.2 Uses of Electron Microscopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577 27.4 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578 Chapter 28: Electrodynamics - Grade 12 28.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 28.2 Electrical machines - generators and motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 28.2.1 Electrical generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 28.2.2 Electric motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582 28.2.3 Real-life applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582 28.2.4 Exercise - generators and motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584 28.3 Alternating Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 28.3.1 Exercise - alternating current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 28.4 Capacitance and inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 28.4.1 Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 28.4.2 Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 28.4.3 Exercise - capacitance and inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 28.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 28.6 End of chapter exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589 Chapter 29: Electronics - Grade 12 29.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591 29.2 Capacitive and Inductive Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591 29.3 Filters and Signal Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 29.3.1 Capacitors and Inductors as Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 29.3.2 LRC Circuits, Resonance and Signal Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 29.4 Active Circuit Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 29.4.1 The Diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 29.4.2 The Light Emitting Diode (LED) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 29.4.3 Transistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 29.4.4 The Operational Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 29.5 The Principles of Digital Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609 29.5.1 Logic Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610 29.6 Using and Storing Binary Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616 29.6.1 Binary numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616 29.6.2 Counting circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617 29.6.3 Storing binary numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619 Chapter 30: EM Radiation - Grade 12 30.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 30.2 Particle/wave nature of electromagnetic radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 30.3 The wave nature of electromagnetic radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626 30.4 Electromagnetic spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626 30.5 The particle nature of electromagnetic radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 30.5.1 Exercise - particle nature of EM waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630 30.6 Penetrating ability of electromagnetic radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631 30.6.1 Ultraviolet(UV) radiation and the skin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631 30.6.2 Ultraviolet radiation and the eyes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 30.6.3 X-rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 30.6.4 Gamma-rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 30.6.5 Exercise - Penetrating ability of EM radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 30.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 30.8 End of chapter exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 Chapter 31: Optical Phenomena and Properties of Matter - Grade 12 31.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635 31.2 The transmission and scattering of light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635 31.2.1 Energy levels of an electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635 31.2.2 Interaction of light with metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636 31.2.3 Why is the sky blue? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637 31.3 The photoelectric effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638 31.3.1 Applications of the photoelectric effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 31.3.2 Real-life applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642 31.4 Emission and absorption spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 31.4.1 Emission Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 31.4.2 Absorption spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644 31.4.3 Colours and energies of electromagnetic radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 31.4.4 Applications of emission and absorption spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648 31.5 Lasers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650 31.5.1 How a laser works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652 31.5.2 A simple laser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654 31.5.3 Laser applications and safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655 31.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656 31.7 End of chapter exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657 V EXERCISES Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661 VI ESSAYS Essay Energy and electricity. Why the fuss? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 Essay: How a cell phone works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671 Essay: How a Physiotherapist uses the Concept of Levers . . . . . . . . . . . 673 Essay: How a Pilot Uses Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
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This e-book serves to assist students and career changers and provides insight on what it's really like to be an elementary school teacher. We interviewed employed elementary teachers across the country, who generously shared their wisdom and guidance. The result of this work - which we call "Career Stories"- reveals the rewards, challenges, frustrations, and the do's and the don'ts of being a teacher in today's world. Each Career Story is in the original voice of an elementary school teacher and is composed of several parts: -Description of and insights into each teacher's job -Tips for prospective teachers -Best and worst parts of being a teacher -Teacher's educational preparation -Previous experience -Additional thoughts on being and becoming a teacher
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Space Tours

by Danielle Hollis

A WebQuest for 5th Grade (Science) Designed By Danielle Hollis Michele Ford Marlene Chotkowski Jillian Keefer Supplies: If a smart board is not available at your school for your usage, all materials such as construction paper, scissors, glue, markers, colored pencils, crayons, foam balls, etc will be provided in the classroom for student use whenever needed. If there are further supplies needed for your project, feel free to ask and I will do my best to get you what you need.
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Global Warming

by christinet143 christine143

Teacher page Introduction This webquest was designed for a project for an Educational Technology course at West Chester University of Pennsylvania during the Fall 2009 semester. We are elementary education majors who were interested in developing a lesson based on the science curriculum. This lesson was created as a part of a science unit on global warming. This lesson allows students to practice their research skills and to use the reserach they found to help them develop their own opinion on global warmng. We also wanted to incorporate technology in our lesson so we decided to have the students make the public service announcement in order to voice their opinions. Each student will be responsible for doing their own research in order to form their opinion on global warming. The teacher will provide the student with a worksheet to guide them through their research to help them find the main points. Once the students are finished their research and they have decided where they stand on the issue of global warming, the students will be divided into groups of 3. Some of these groups will be students that believe global warming is occurring and some of the groups will be students that don't believe global warming is occurring. Once they are in their groups, they will be assigned roles within their group. The 3 different roles are the Resonator, the Effector, and the Collector. By having these roles, it will help the students to organize the information that they need for their PSA video. When the videos are finished, they will be shared with the rest of the class. The individual research part of the lesson will take about 30 minutes. You want to give the students enough time to navigate through websites in order to formulate their own opinion. Filming the scenes for the PSA video should take about an hour and editing the video using iMovie should take 1-2 hours, depending on how long the students videos are and how familiar they are with the software. It should take about 30-45 minutes to watch all of the videos as a class. The multiple intelligences in this lesson are: Interpersonal Intelligence - The students work in groups. 2. Intrapersonal Intelligence - The students do individual research. 3. Linguistic Intelligence - The research the students will be doing. The cognitive levels in this lesson are: Knowledge - Students should know the basic concepts of global warming. 2. Comprehension - The students will be taking the information from the websites and putting it into their own words. They will then use this information to make their public service announcement video. 3. Application - They will be using the information they gathered in order to make others aware on their stance. 4. Synthesis - They will be creating a PSA video in order to show their stance on global warming.
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SMART-created Lesson Activities

by SMART Technologies SMART Technologies ULC

SMART’s latest collection of interactive lesson activities uses the creative power of Notebook software to enhance lessons with Adobe Flash activities, multimedia files and colorful and descriptive graphics. If you don’t have access to the full version of Notebook™ collaborative learning software, you can still take advantage of these resources by downloading the latest version of Notebook interactive viewer. Notebook interactive viewer enables you to view and present Notebook files on all interactive whiteboards. To download Notebook interactive viewer visit www.education.smarttech.com/nbiv. To access the most recently created Notebook software lesson activities, visit www.smarttech.com/EdCLA.
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Unit Conversions

by Amit Kulkarni

It will help those who want to convert quantitiesfrom one system to another
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Various Teaching and student materials for courses on the Human Body, created using Lodestar
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KS3 Science: Magnetism

by Andy Hannaford

KS3 science material on the subject of magnetism
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Teaching and learning materials to support the unit classification and food Webs part of the KS3 Science Curriculum.
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There are many ways to study rivers and streams from actually going to the the river to looking at collected data online. This activity is just one way to start looking at long term data.
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Following a unit on weather, students worked in pairs to produce a Keynote presentation about how a particular weather event impacts people. Students began brainstorming using Inspiration and once they selected a topic, they began researching their topic using four teacher recommended website. Students used a Keynote template to create their slideshow, presenting information about the science behind their weather topic and how the weather impacts people.
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Hurricane Information

by Hurricane Jenny

A hurricane or serious tropical storm involves many different subject areas: weather, science, geography, and even media and communications. Also, there are storms that have happened in history that have shaped how we deal with severe weather and it's important to study them too.
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