TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Reviewed Resources with a score of 2.

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Novel Reading

by Holly Mercado

Students will read from their Revolutionary War novels and complete their packet for the day.
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This unit is designed to introduce students to the early cultures that existed in the Americas prior to colonization. Students will learn about the culture and societies that developed, how they developed, what factors influenced their development, and how/why these societies changed over time. Students will apply core thinking skills to understand the impact of environmental change on human history. This unit focuses on the thematic strands of Culture, Time, Continuity, and Change.
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World History

by Rob Darrow

World History is taught in the 10th grade in California.
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Lesson Templates

by Mr. Harpine .

These social studies templates can be used to create lesson plans in multiple formats. Most of the information has been filled in, you only need to expand the details to create complete lessons. Also, I have included power point templates which can be used to create discussions or lectures.
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The purpose for this lesson plan is for the students to learn about who discovered electricity, how it was discovered and how it evolved. The students will learn about the history of a few pioneers like Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Edison, and Alexander Graham Bell. These inventors started the journey with their inventions using electricity which has a great impact in our lives today. The students will learn the steps to performing an experiment, what electricity is made of, and how it relates to magnetism.
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1- Origins and Trust

by Robert Lucas

Introductory lesson in a 7th grade unit on belief systems. Includes all needed handouts and materials. SWBAT identify two basic human needs: a code of behavior and a sense of purpose. 2. SWBAT distinguish between the ways myths, folk stories, and religions provide this purpose.
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Students write and perform a play about British imperialism in Nigeria. This resource is the main handout you'll need.
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An assignment that requires students to read, analyze and provide a written response to a print or on-line news article
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2. SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SOCIETY AND HEALTH AIM: To describe the functionalist or social consensus based sociological perspective. To describe the conflict or Marxist sociological perspective. To describe the social interactionist or subjectively based sociological perspective. To give examples of how health is approached from these perspectives. To explain the need for flexibility grounded upon a holistic approach to gathering evidence which is clearly related to the particular situation under consideration. FUNCTIONALIST SOCIOLOGY EMPHASISES SOCIAL CONSENSUS Functionalist sociologists focus upon the apparent consensus, which appears to exist among the members of any society. This apparent consensus supposedly also explains the nature of the social institutions which assist the reproduction of society. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) was one of the most influential founders of the functionalist sociological perspective. This may be summarised by a comparison with biology. If biologists want to know how the human body works, they begin by examining its parts, such as the brain, lungs, liver, etc. in order to see how they contribute to the smooth functioning of the whole body, and to the continuation of life. To do this, they would have to examine the role of the body parts in relation to each other and also in relation to overall body functioning. Functionalism adopts a perspective towards society which is similar to that which the biologist adopts towards the body. To understand any part of society, such as the family, government or religion, the part must be analysed in terms of its functions in relation to other social parts or structures, and in relation to society as a whole. Functionalists are sometimes called structural functionalists because they begin with the observation that society is structured. This means that relationships between organizations and members of society are organised according to apparently accepted rules. Social relationships are patterned and recurrent. Values provide general guidelines for behaviour and are translated into more specific directives in terms of expected social roles (behaviour patterns) and norms. From a social consensus perspective, the parts of the society are generally believed to be integrated to ensure overall social functioning and reproduction occurs smoothly. Such integration is supposedly based on a value consensus which is shared by the great majority of members of society. According to the functionalist, to explain the existence of social institutions we should look not merely for purposive intention of individuals, but also at how the social system as a whole requires its needs to be satisfied. The functionalist starting point is that people are strongly socialised into conformity to group norms and into acceptance of a wider social consensus. Social phenomena can be explained in terms of the functions they perform, and may be labelled functional or dysfunctional. Change is introduced from outside the system, in the same way that injury of the body may be explained by an accident or the entry of a virus. An extreme functionalist account provides a picture of society that is static, without internal mechanisms for change, and without conflicts between opposed social groups. Critics think the functionalist approach overemphasises the consensual and determining nature of the socialisation process, leading to a false and oversimplified view of society, action and personality. MARXIST SOCIOLOGY EMPHASISES SOCIAL CONFLICT Karl Marx (1818-83) is the father of a conflict-based approach to analysis of society. His most famous work ‘Capital’ analysed the historical development and structure of capitalist society in Europe. Marx began with the observation that in order to survive, humans must produce food and material objects. (Engels added later that they must also produce and nurture babies, but I will discuss the sexual division of labour elsewhere.) For Marx, the nature of humanity, and the nature of society, is seen to derive primarily from the vital production of food and related necessities to support social life. In undertaking production, people enter into primary relationships with others. From the social relationships involved in production, a way of life develops which can be seen as the expression of these primary productive relationships. How individuals think and behave is also seen primarily as an expression of their location in regard to production, its processes and outcomes. Because wants are great and resources to satisfy them are comparatively slender, Marx saw societies as divided into primary groups which relate to each other through the processes of production in an often antagonistic manner, rather than with consensual and cooperatively implemented goals. He described capitalist society primarily in terms of a two class model in which capitalists own or have the money to purchase the means of production, such as land, factories, raw materials and the labour power of workers. The workers are seen as subject to the domination and control of this employing class, because they own no land or wealth, and therefore have no alternative means of subsistence other than selling their labour. For Marx, there is a fundamental conflict of interest between these production related groups (classes), and one usually gains at the expense of the other. The major interest of the capitalist is in producing goods more cheaply than competitors, so that the markets for goods may be expanded. This drive for profit leads to the oppression of workers and to their replacement with machinery wherever possible. Workers, on the other hand, want to maximise their incomes and reduce the hours and intensity of their labour wherever possible. Marx saw this class conflict as the motor of history and technological development. He tended to explain all social groups in terms related to the historical expression of the developing central economic relationships of capitalist production. Criticisms of Marx often relate to his strong views about the primacy of the economic dimension in determining human actions and social events. Marx predicted that the expanding process of capitalist development would also lead to the development of an international market. However, he seems to have been wrong in thinking that as a result of the capitalist search for profit and the consequent replacement of workers with machines, there would also be a growing army of unemployed and consequently ‘immiserated’ people who would eventually undertake violent revolution against those who own or control wealth. In general, capitalism has been so productive as a system that it has constantly expanded its markets, products, services, and employment opportunities. As consumers, workers have often benefited and enjoyed new comforts and pleasures. However, global terrorism by economically and politically threatened groups has become a growing preoccupation. In general, as capitalism expanded so has the role of government. As a result of the wealth generated by this profit driven, highly competitive and productive system, the state first developed primarily to support capitalist requirements, including the need for education for increasingly complex forms of employment. As the right to vote was extended as a result of popular pressure, government performed an increasingly wide range of regulating, socialising and supporting roles. Marx addressed the 19th century rise and organising role of trade unions positively. However, he saw the government of his day as inevitably acting primarily to organise and pursue the interests of the owners and controllers of production. The extension of the right to vote, education, the free press, television and effective birth control has made Western government much more responsive to broader democratic demand than Marx ever envisaged. Following Marx, Weber discussed the functions of government, including the collection of taxation and the administration of bureaucracy under mature capitalism. His vitally important work is addressed in a later discussion. SOCIOLOGY FROM A SOCIAL INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE The consensus and conflict versions of social organization approach society in terms of its existence as a whole, and are thus sometimes known as macro-theories. Such structurally based sociological perspectives see societies as more or less coherent overarching systems which shape human action. From a functionalist perspective, behaviour is shaped largely by shared norms and values disseminated throughout the social system. From a Marxist viewpoint, behaviour is ultimately determined by productive location and the interactions of conflicting economic interests. Action theorists differ from structuralist sociologists in that their focus is not on the persistence of a larger social system, but on action to change it. Social interactionists are action theorists of a kind who usually focus on the micro-levels of society, and on related small-scale interactions between groups and individuals. They differ from structuralist and functionalist sociologists in that their focus is generally on the apparent perceptions people have, the related choices they make, and on general interactions between groups and individuals, often in micro-climates. Social interactionists see human behaviour as the product of what people feel and decide is going on around them. They are therefore most interested not in events and their apparent causes, but in the meaning or interpretation that individuals place upon events. Alfred Schutz was a founding social interactionist who wrote ‘The Phenomenology of the Social World’ in 1932. He was interested in how definitions of reality are arrived at, used and sustained by social actors. In 1966 W.I. Thomas emphasised that social behaviour is a product of how people interpret the behaviour of others, and how they interpret their own situation in relation to this. Whether or not these interpretations are correct, every social encounter involves a process of interpretation on the basis of available evidence, whether this is self conscious or not. Social interactionists often show how individuals may dispute definitions of reality or rules made by dominant social groups, and how social actors negotiate shared rules and ideas. Meanings are not fixed entities and a multiplicity of meanings may be constructed by a multiplicity of groups and individuals. An emphatic distinction between personal meanings or beliefs and more broadly derived or scientific forms of social meaning or evidence was strongly linked to the emergence of an interest in psychology and the interior life during the 20th century, but this interest was not new in sociology. For example, Marx had earlier discussed ideologies and distinguished them from more scientific approaches to understanding. He saw ideologies as narrow, self-protective and distorted beliefs grounded primarily in local knowledge and emotional responses which arise as a result of occupation of a particular class or related social location. He thought of ideologies as self sustaining and partially blind belief and action systems, which could be contrasted with the adoption of broader and more scientifically based approaches to evidence gathering, in order to establish a more effective and therefore more socially inclusive construction of reality. WHAT HAPPENED IN WORLD HISTORY? Marxism gained many adherents and during the 20th century some socialist revolutions took place. They occurred, for example, in Russia in 1918, in China in 1949, and in Cuba in 1953. The new governments seized private land and property, collectivised farms so the peasants ran them and then tried to plan economic production and distribution for the nation. Marx had thought that socialist leadership would come from urban workers and their trade unions in the industrial heartlands of production. However, it was established in a variety of ways. The major revolutionary target was often the dismantling of pre-capitalist and agrarian (feudal) modes of production, which also supported colonial rulers and traders, prior to introducing the difficult process of industrialisation to a largely peasant population. Large and middle landholders were dispossessed, often with force. The communal production systems which were established sold to the government rather than in any other marketplace. This process was often inefficient and the production planners were also ill informed about likely communal production outcomes. By the end of the 20th century it seemed clear to all nations that, for a variety of reasons, government planning of economic production and distribution was unable to provide a comparatively efficient and effective substitute for the competitive market. A privileged and sometimes corrupt political managerial class could easily arise in lieu of a capitalist ruling class. The problems of poor production, resource degradation and environmental pollution in socialist countries were often worse than under capitalism. At the beginning of the 21st century we confront a world where capitalist and formerly socialist economic systems are now seeking peaceful integration in a global economy. This is fortunate, because we could easily have had a third world war forced upon us instead – this time a nuclear one. Sporadic but powerful forms of war and terrorism by those who are comparatively economically disadvantaged are now the major global anxiety, rather than war between nation states. An equally important concern is that market driven cultures may not be responsive enough to ecologically sustainable development needs, and that as a result of this our beautiful natural world and its related quality of life may become increasingly degraded, bleak and ugly – except, perhaps, for those rich enough to have the means to preserve parts of it for themselves. AN EXAMPLE OF FUNCTIONALIST THEORY APPLIED TO HEALTH Perhaps the most well known functionalist sociologist writing about health and illness was Talcott Parsons. He wrote in the United States after World War II. Parsons argued than in an advanced and industrialised Western society the very high level of structural differentiation poses a potentially dangerous situation for the maintenance of the social system as a whole. Every individual has a specific social role to play and associated tasks must be carried out effectively, in order to assist the smooth functioning of the total system. The stability of the social system is maintained only if all the interdependent social roles are carried out, because each specific role depends on others. Parsons argued that there are only two major ways in which people may deviate from expected social behaviour. They may refuse their normally allotted role either because they are sick, or because they choose not to perform it. In the latter case they are likely to be considered criminal, and are treated accordingly. From the functionalist perspective, sick people must be turned over to the appropriate medical agency in order to be returned to their original healthy state as a result of the application of a diagnostic and therapeutic process. Parsons thus saw sickness, like crime, as a potentially disturbing influence upon the smooth operation and reproduction of the society. In 1951 he developed his sick role concept, which tells us what type of behaviour we should be able to expect from and associate with the sick person. There are four basic aspects of the Parsonian sick role: • The absence of responsibility of the individual for his or her condition • The exemption of the sick individual from normal task and role obligations • The recognition that being sick is undesirable and one should want to get well • The obligation to seek out competent help Associated with being sick is the ‘secondary gain’ of the temporary exemption of normal task and role obligations. However, two new obligations are added – to want to and try to get well, and to seek out and cooperate with competent helpers. The sick role, if properly undertaken, becomes the social control mechanism necessary for the maintenance of the social system. Wolinsky discusses some criticisms of Parson’s sick role theory. Firstly, the sick role appears to apply predominantly in the case of acute physiological illness, rather than in the case of chronic conditions. The latter may not be readily observable early on, and may not be readily correctable by later practitioner treatment. For the chronically ill, it is often impossible to resume normal role performance at pre-illness level. The chronically ill are forced to adapt to a permanent condition, rather than overcome a temporary one. They are forced to emphasise the retention and mobilisation of whatever level of role performance and autonomy they now have, rather than attempt to regain higher ones. Finally, as a result of their chronic illness, they are in danger of finding themselves on a downward slide in terms of their socio-economic status. Another criticism of Parson’s concept of the sick role was that how people react to sickness may depend strongly on their culture, their gender, and their socio-economic situation. Some, for example, may prefer to drop dead in harness rather than admit to being sick, others may tend to be hypochondriacs. Some critics argued that the traditional one on one patient/practitioner relationship on which the Parson’s sick role is based has changed, and that the sick role itself is a typically middle class American concept. In relation to this, Friedson argued that medicine is now engaged in the creation of illness as an ‘official social role’. Whenever I have requested a doctor’s certificate from a student in order to legitimate a missed exam, I am aware that this process also costs the Australian taxpayers money, and I tend to remember Friedson’s view. (I’m not sure, however, what a better alternative might be.) Other critics argued that patient practitioner relationships are highly variable and that the doctor may not always have the kind of esteemed and authoritative role envisaged by Parsons. Parsons agreed with many of his critics, but said they tended to be focusing on the trees rather than the forest. EXAMPLES OF CONFLICT PERSPECTIVES APPLIED TO HEALTH It will be shown elsewhere later that the development of international capitalism seems generally to have improved human health and longevity, although its development has also widened social inequality and trampled many societies which have been in the way of market expansion. Following Marx, some conflict theorists have discussed the close relationship which often exists between premature death on the one hand, and poverty, dangerous work, unemployment and lower socio-economic status on the other. This relationship still exists globally and within countries, including contemporary Australia. In the 19th century, Engels, who often worked with and supported Marx, likened the 19th century Manchester workforce to an army returned from battle, so heavy was the toll on its limbs. Today, the unfettered use of dangerous chemicals in production, and the potential effects to the health of workers and the environment which occur as a result of this, are probably of more urgent concern than the use of poorly guarded machinery, although the latter problem continues as well. The invention of cars has added new dangers. Lupton points out that those contemporary theorists who study political economy, and have therefore been influenced by the Marxian perspective on capitalist development, focus on the identification of the political, economic and historical factors that shape heath, disease and treatment. For example, even in developed economies, the poor generally have worse health than the wealthy because of their comparatively poor environment and related lifestyle. Globally, infant diarrhoea and infectious diseases still take a huge toll as a result of lack of adequate food, clean water, effective sanitation systems and sound housing. Children are particularly likely to die. On the other hand, in economically developed countries, individuals have more real and apparent control over their lives, and this is reflected in their having fewer and healthier children, a comparatively long life span and in the nature of illnesses experienced. In developed nations these relate primarily to lack of exercise, poor diet and use of drugs - mainly tobacco, alcohol. Peoples’ health is also affected by their access to treatment for injury and illness. The Australian government provides a universal taxpayer funded system of hospital and medical treatment know as Medicare. The taxpayer also subsidises a wide range of pharmaceuticals through the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme. Duckett’s research has shown that poorer Australians use medical and hospital services more than richer ones. In the U.S. the reverse is the case. In the U.S., the employer or the individual, not the taxpayer, generally purchases health insurance and services. Many sick people consequently go untreated because of their lack of adequate personal insurance cover. More effective health promotion and management of services would be good for both countries. However, an effective preventive focus is hard to obtain, in part because both systems, although very different, provide incentives which are often geared to serving traditional economic and professional interests, rather than the consumer or broader public interest. A major difference between an early Marxist approach to health and a contemporary critical analysis is that government intervention in the economy and the related provision of health welfare and development has grown enormously in Western countries since the time of Marx. This is reflected in contemporary writing. For example, David Henry, the Professor of Clinical Pharmacology and Head of the School of Population Health at Newcastle University recently pointed out that prescription writing is one of the commonest and most important tasks undertaken by doctors. The pharmaceutical manufacturers spend huge sums of money promoting their products to doctors, and the relationship between the industry and the profession has become complex and intertwined. It is hard to find medical specialists who are not on an ‘advisory committee’ and many general practitioners are recipients of drug industry largesse which includes expensive dinners where experts sponsored by drug companies give talks. These experts gain considerable income from their close relationship with industry. Mental health is seen as a growing problem in all developed countries, for many complex reasons. Anxiety, depression, anger or other unwanted behaviours are increasingly likely to be diagnosed as the result of genetic or related physical imbalance and treated with drugs. Thomas Szasz, Professor of Psychiatry at New York University, argues against a growing popular tide, that mental illness should primarily be conceptualised as a moral and political problem related to the interaction of an individual with his or her environment. He sees mental health practitioners as part of the problem if they avoid pursuit of general social understanding and autonomous self-control. He points out that drugs may function as chemical straightjackets and that specific diagnoses and drugs may relieve the providers of the necessity to convince themselves that they may not be acting altogether on behalf of their patient. Szasz says psychiatrists and their powerful allies (drug companies, lawyers, doctors and insurance companies) have succeeded in persuading the scientific community, the courts, the media and the public that the conditions they call ‘mental disorders’ are diseases rather than unwanted behaviours fashioned in response to an environment. He argues that professional diagnosis authenticates people as legitimate occupants of the sick role, for example to secure drugs, compensations payments and disability support. It is the social role of the mental health practitioner to diagnose the ‘other’ as sick and needing drugs. They see what they want to? Could we become a nation where taxpayer-funded drug dependency is accepted as the norm because of such pressures? Are people who are sad, depressed or difficult also being drugged, with the bill sent to the taxpayer? How effectively does the current situation meet any person’s need for a greater sense of personal adequacy, acceptance, companionship, and control over meaningful activity? Henry points out that the preference of multinational companies for profits over customers becomes clearest in developing countries. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa has been the greatest peacetime tragedy for mankind since the plague. For years, drugs have been available that control disease progression and prevent mother to child transmission. However, these drugs have remained out of the reach of millions of potential beneficiaries who cannot afford them. The drug industry argues that their development costs are the reason for high prices. Henry points out that drug companies spend more on developing drugs for the domestic pet industry in North America than on new drugs for malaria. These same companies cry poor in Australia because of the price regulation undertaken by the government in this country. The kind of perspective which Marx expressed for the world is commonplace in mainstream discussions of health today. If you want to be entertained and also learn about how government and the health industry may be conducted in developing countries, and how this may also relate to the career aspirations of public servants and international health researchers, I suggest you read the novel ‘The Constant Gardener’ by John le Carre. This author used to write spy stories about the Cold War, between Capitalist and Communist aligned nations, but lack of one in recent years, has moved him on to newer topics. Speaking as a person who has worked in West Africa, and also in the NSW public service and the Health Sciences College of Sydney University, I found the book chillingly convincing. FOUCAULT’S PERSPECTIVE ON THE PROFESSIONS AND THE BODY Lupton points out that for Foucault and his followers, the body is the ultimate site of political and ideological control, surveillance and regulation. Foucault sees historical development as entailing a widening process of state and professional control, where bodies are increasingly subjected to regulation, monitoring, discipline and surveillance by the institutions of government. These include the hospital, the prison, the school, the asylum, the military and the research centre. Through study and attempted control of the body and its behaviours, state funded professions such as medicine, psychiatry and the law, define the limits of acceptable ‘healthy’ behaviour. These professionals record activities and punish those bodies which do not behave appropriately, from the dominant, professional, perspective. For Foucault, medical power is intrinsically linked to the forms of knowledge produced by medicine. These forms of knowledge and their related ways of speaking (discourses), are then used to increasingly control the behaviour of individuals and populations. Through the apparently benign power of medical practitioners, the ‘medical gaze’ becomes the dominant, defining and controlling discourse of the modern society. While not wishing to disagree with Foucault’s historical account, I think the evidence is that we appear to be living longer and healthier lives, partly as a result of the increasing surveillance and management activities Foucault describes. In the contemporary context, such surveillance is usually, in my view, a narrow, clumsy and managerially or professionally driven version of our early democracy, rather than a more abstract and apparently sinister form of state domination. Ivan Illich presents an argument which has similarities with that of Foucault when he asserts that the medicalisation of life has drained many people of their capacity and responsibility for independent analysis, action and self-care. He states that as a result of the general rise of controlling professions, many people no longer have the confidence, initiative or resources to think about their life’s passage in a more holistic, non-medical, and constructive way. The recent development of computers and the internet, provides many individuals with new ways of seeking knowledge for themselves. However, such people often come from comparatively privileged social groups, not those where health is poorest. While the rise of modern information technology may be empowering for many people, including health care consumers, for others it may be just another factor which is making life increasingly complex, anxious and hard to negotiate. With economic development, the personal life and its health concerns become more complex and so does the range of possible treatments for health and social problems. This complexity is sometimes the unnecessary result of the actions of people whose main game is the elevation of their own professional status and related discourse. Part of the answer to this is for governments and related institutions to take much more broadly coordinated, planned and consultative approaches to the promotion of health, including environment protection and sustainable development, in international, national, and regionally managed contexts. The argument for this broader, better planned and more consultative form of national and community health management is primarily presented in the subject Health Policy and Service Delivery, which also seeks to teach the requirements for critical implementation of the Australian policy direction. GOFFMAN: SOCIAL INTERACTIONIST THEORY APPLIED TO HEALTH One of the most influential social interactionist theorists was Erving Goffman whose work on total institutions is addressed in a later lecture. In his book Stigma, written in 1963, Goffman argued that status symbols are identifiers which establish a special claim to prestige, honour or other desirable treatment for the person who possesses them. However, his main concern was to analyse stigma symbols. These draw attention to a debasing identity discrepancy, with consequent reduction in the valuation of the individual by so-called ‘normals’ in society. Goffman used the term stigma to refer to any attribute that is deeply socially discrediting, and discussed its meaning using a language of potential and actual interpersonal relationships. He addressed three different types of potential social stigma. These are physical deformities, perceived abnormalities or blemishes of character (such as addiction, mental disorder, or imprisonment) and tribally allocated stigmas related to another’s race, nation or religion. Goffman’s view was that an individual has both a personal and a social identity, and that the central feature of the stigmatized individual’s situation in life is the search for acceptance by so-called ‘normals’. He stated that there are three stages in the learning of the stigmatised person. Stage one is learning the ‘normal’ point of view and that he or she is disqualified according to it. Stage two is learning to cope with the way others treat the kind of person he or she is supposed to be. Stage three is learning to cover an abnormality and pretend to be like everyone else in the group. For example, an illiterate person may try to ‘pass’ as literate by pretending to read the newspaper, or a mentally distressed person may make a special effort to behave in ways which others find acceptable. Because of the great rewards in being considered normal, Goffman argued that all people who are in a position to pass as normal usually try to do so. In addition, their stigma may relate to matters which cannot appropriately be divulged. Voluntary disclosure of a hidden stigma may radically transform the person’s situation from that of an individual with information to manage, to that of an individual with an uneasy social situation to manage. Goffman stated that stigmatised individuals might adopt a variety of means for negotiating social situations, including defensive cowering or hostile bravado. ‘Normals’ will often find encounters difficult as well – feeling that the stigmatized individual is either too aggressive or too shamefaced, and in either case too ready to read unintended meanings into their actions. Stigmatised individuals may withdraw from social interaction or may forge a group identity to fight against a stigma and create an alternative ideology to ‘normality’. Goffman says that the lucky person who comes to feel they are above the need to please others, and who accept him or herself, will feel no need to conceal. THE PASSAGE OF ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LEGISLATION Goffman was writing at a time when black power movements and many other organizations forged by disadvantaged groups in the U.S. were fighting to improve their status in society. Their success in this regard is partly reflected in the passage of anti-discrimination and equal opportunity legislation in the U.S. and elsewhere, including Australia. The equal treatment requirements of this legislation are also reflected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international conventions developed by the United Nations and its organizations after World War II. This is discussed elsewhere. One should point out, however, that lawyers are not cheap and more wealthy and confident members of any group may use that legislation against discrimination most effectively. In the absence of broader legislation to address poverty and related inequality, anti-discrimination legislation may provide window dressing which also serves to exacerbate traditional economic inequalities. It may hide the fact that many harmful social situations are primarily rooted in poverty and remain essentially the same as in earlier times. This assertion requires further empirical examination in order to improve the current situation of all people, particularly those most disadvantaged. Under Australian state Anti-Discrimination Acts it is against the law to discriminate on the basis of : • Sex, pregnancy, marital status • Race, colour, nationality, ethnic or ethno-religious background • Physical or intellectual disability • Homosexuality (actual or presumed) • Age There is matching Commonwealth legislation for state anti-discrimination acts, which takes precedence to the extent of any inconsistency between the State and Commonwealth approaches. The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission is a national independent statutory body established in 1986 by an act of the same name. It has responsibility for inquiry into alleged infringements under three anti-discrimination laws – the Racial Discrimination Act 1975, the Sex Discrimination Act 1984, and the Disability Discrimination Act 1992, as well as inquiring into alleged infringements of human rights under the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Act 1986. Direct discrimination occurs when someone is treated unfairly or unequally because they belong to a particular group or category of people. Indirect discrimination is where there is a requirement (a rule, policy, practice or procedure) that is the same for everyone, but which has an unequal or disproportionate effect or result on a particular group. It is clearly more difficult and expensive to deal with indirect discrimination. For example, it is discriminatory to have long steps and no ramp leading to a public or private facility. However, it may be expensive to transform this situation. Australian anti-discrimination legislation refers to conditions in employment, education, provision of goods and services, accommodation and registered clubs. In order to avoid discrimination employers are advised to adopt an appropriate policy statement and appoint someone to ensure the policy is followed. Consultation and feedback mechanisms should be established for workers and clients. There should be a management and staff education process. A grievance handling mechanism should be established. All employment, production and service provision practices should be checked to see that they are fair and non-discriminatory. Such a review should cover hiring, training, promotion, work organization, service provision, recreation and retrenchment practices. Under the legislation it is also the responsibility of the organization to try to ensure that sexual harassment does not occur. An Australian disability awareness package makes the following suggestions for action between a person with a disability and another person. It recommends that the person with a disability should: • Tell the other person if any form of assistance is required • Let people know what you wish to do yourself • Don’t let people treat you like an invalid • Do not assume that everyone knows and understands your disability The following actions are recommended to the other person: • Ask the person with a disability if help is required, but do not insist and do not assist without asking • If you are unsure of how to behave, ask the person. Accept the fact that disability exists, don’t try to pretend it isn’t there • Regard and treat the person as healthy • Be aware of the environment and how it may present difficulties CONCLUSION Functionalists adopt a perspective towards society which is similar to that a biologist adopts towards the human body. To understand any part of society, such as the family, government or religion, it must be analysed in terms of its functions in relation to other social parts or structures, and in relation to society as a whole. Functionalists generally take a consensus perspective. The parts of the society are believed to be integrated to ensure overall social functioning and reproduction occurs smoothly. Marx instead saw societies as divided into conflicting social groups which relate to each other primarily through the economic process, where there is a battle of opposing interests. Marx saw conflict between employers and workers (those who have only their labour to sell) as the motor of historical and technological development. Criticisms of Marx often relate to his strong views about the primacy of the economic in determining actions and events. However, Marx has influenced many later and contemporary researchers, who tend to take a theoretical approach based on observing the interactions of social groups which have differing degrees of power to pursue their economic and political interests, which are their driving forces. Social interactionists see human behaviour as the product of what people decide is going on around them. They are therefore most interested not in events and their apparent causes, but in the meaning or interpretation that individuals place upon events. The perspectives people are taking when discussing health matters are not always obvious, but need to be thought about. In order to have relevance for explaining the world, including all aspects of health and health care provision, such approaches should normally be clearly grounded in specific studies of particular regional, historical, political, cultural and economic contexts. This is discussed again later. FURTHER READING Baumes, P. (2001) How Do Decisions on the Listing of Pharmaceuticals Influence Health and Health Services in Australia. Australian Health Policy Institute Commissioned Paper Series 2001/03. Sydney: Australian Health Policy Institute in collaboration with the Medical Foundation at the University of Sydney. Haralambos, M. Van Krieken, R., Smith P and Holborn, M. (1996) Sociology: Themes and Perspectives (Aust. Edition). South Melbourne: Addison Wesley Longman. Germov, J. (ed.) (1998) The Body: Social Process and Cultural Theory. London: Sage Publications. Lupton, D. (1995) Medicine as Culture: Illness, Disease and the Body in Western Societies. London: Sage Publications.
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A Day in the Life of Medieval Times

by Melanie Piersanti Gioe

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This resource gives the procedures for an oral review format for vocabulary study. Use "ctrl l" to view pdf files as slideshows. This resource is part of the Vocabulary Study collection.
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Ancient Egypt WebQuest

by Mr. Harpine .

A web quest for Ancient Egypt
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Vocabulary Study

by Mr. Harpine .

This folder contains resources for studying vocabulary. The collection includes flashcards, study techniques and other resources. The collection also contains resources which can be used when studying Latin Roots or word stems.
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New Zealand Powerpoint

by Brian McNeal

This is a Powerpoint presentation that goes through the history, economy, foods, sports, and education in New Zealand. This would be a good resource for teachers to introduce New Zealand to their students.
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Coastal African Flags

by Robert Lucas

Colorable flags for coastal nations of Africa.
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Cold War Activity

by Bob Fecarotta

Interpreting historical data and creating a personal argument.
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Timeline - Cold War

by Bob Fecarotta

Events under the Kennedy and Johnson Administration
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This lesson plan introduces students to a few of the key campaign tools politicians use to help get themselves elected. It introduces them by looking at real-life examples and then asks them to synthesize the information by creating their own advertisements and pamphlets.
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US STATE DEPARTMENT

by Mr. Harpine .

These readings were taken from books written by the US State Department
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Historians

by Folwell Dunbar

Poem to introduce students to the study of history.
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Please See Bibliography and Appendix Notes
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This lesson was developed as part of a project for Dr. Bolton's EDM-300 class at the West Chester University of Pennsylvania. The lesson is about learning about the different military strategies that were used during World War II, for example the 'Blitzkrieg' of the Germans, as well as the tactics that developed because of new technology, such as aerial combat. The students are responsible for creating a poster detailing some of these tactics, thus leading to them understanding what the strategies involved. By doing this they will inherently understand the importance some nations had in World War II and the differences that good tactics had on the strength of a nation's army. Multiple intelligences will be addressed throughout the project, as those who are more keen on visual learning will learn through the creation of the posters complete with pictures and summaries of the strategies, while those who are more prone to learn via reading will benefit from the information included in the Webquest. Those who learn better through listening will also be helped through the presentations made by the different groups in the class. The students will need to be able to think critically and determine which strategies are more effective and important, and also be able to speak in front of the class as well as develop a description of the strategies they are presenting.
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Poverty

by Jordan Weidler

To have the students realize the reality of poverty around the world and to found out ways to help.
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Lets go on vacation!

by Colleen Brady

This lesson was developed as an exercise for students to learn skills that may need to be used in the future when planning for a family or vacation. This lesson involves planning a vacation to South America. The students will need to follow the guidelines and stay within a budget to complete the project accurately. The students are required to pick a country in south America to which they would like to travel to. They will then be asked to book a hotel and find airfare that stays within their budget. This will teach them responsibility and money saving skills. They will also be required to plan an educational itinerary. They need to visit three places during their stay that offer some kind of historical background. The multiple intelligence that will be used for this activity would be intrapersonal intelligence and logical-mathematical intelligence. The students will need to work for themselves but they will also need to use their problem solving skills when attempting to stay within their budget. The cognitive levels that are addressed are understanding because the student will need to explain why they chose different things, evaluating because they will need to state why they chose to do different things, and creating because they will need to create this vacation as a requirement for this project.
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Lodestar Slideshow presentation showing photos from the early life of Adolf Hitler
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Civil War Resources

by Abigail Myers

Resources related to the Civil War.
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Catal begins

by OKAPI Open Knowledge

Aerial view of the East (Neolithic) Mound of Çatalhöyük looking towards the northeast. The sharp interface between the mound and the Konya Plain—the flat area of former marshes and lake—is clearly seen. The latter is now intensively cultivated and drained with ditches and pumps. This activity has considerably lowered the water table from its Neolithic levels and destroyed most tree growth in the surrounding areas. The settlement of the East Mound of Çatalhöyük was established 9,400 years ago. It was not a mound at that time, just a possibly slightly elevated ground rising above surrounding marshes. It grew to be a mound during its 1,000 years of occupation.
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Time Zone Clocks

by Robert Lucas

A quick tip for decorating a social studies classroom.
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This is a collection of primary sources from the Westward Expansion period in US History. This collection contains documents such as portraits, pictures of artifacts, letters, etc. This collection is great for developing DBQ skills for 5th and 8th graders taking the NYS Social Studies assessment.
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Different Scales: How do archaeologists weave far-reaching events with details of everyday life to create a rich approach to history? How and why do archaeologists study Çatalhöyük at many different scales? How can archaeologists use “multi-scalar data” to create comprehensive descriptions of place From galaxies to planets, from continents to cities, from people to atoms, the universe around us exists and changes over time at vastly different scales. People also interact and communicate with each other within different scales, and thus many anthropologists and archaeologists use a “multi-scalar” approach to study human culture. Consider this example: Jose, born in Los Angeles, speaks English (national). He likes to watch Spanish telenovelas produced in Mexico and Argentina (ethnic), surfs the World Wide Web, and is concerned about global climate change (global). Elaborately decorated tiles remind him of his mother's cooking (family), and he greets his friends with a specific hand gesture (personal). All of these, and more, make up parts of Jose’s culture, and all of these things exist in different scales. In archaeology, it is essential to observe and interpret a site at many different scales of resolution in order to reconstruct the past. Archaeologists have always made detailed observations of specific artifacts and finds. When archaeology was still a young science, however, the finds considered most important tended to be unique, exotic, elaborate, aesthetically pleasing, or chronologically diagnostic. Interpretation of these detailed observations was made at a very broad scale of resolution in terms of the Big Picture of history. This macro-scale approach defined cultural variation over large, often continental-wide, geographies, and took place over large swaths of time. In the 1960s and 1970s, these analyses began to be broadened. Observations were made on statistically valid sets of artifacts from which variability was extrapolated at regional scales. The use of computers and other analytical and observational technologies increased the quantitative complexity with which archaeological data could be observed. Thus, a set of observations about a building at Çatalhöyük could “stand for” or “be typical of” all the buildings at the site, even those that had not yet been excavated, or the pattern of plant domestication observed at Çatalhöyük could be considered the model for the process of “neolithization” of all Anatolia. The focus here was more about regional, cultural ecology and cultural evolution, and understanding the relationships between culture and environment, than about the “noise” of the details of social practice. During the last two decades, archaeological researchers have begun to interweave a more intimate or microscale understanding of individual households, and the people who made up these households, into broader scales of interpretation. The development of analytical and observational instrumentation and digitization at the micro-scale (including, for example, techniques for studying micromorphology and microstratigraphy, and for the analysis of DNA) has increased immensely the detail and complexity with which archaeologists can observe data. The excavations at Çatalhöyük provide an important example of archaeology at multiple scales. Recent work done by different specialists has shown that the people of Çatalhöyük were part of a large social network of trade: date palm baskets may have come from as far away as the Levant (the southeast Mediterranean coast); obsidian used to make stone tools was brought in from Cappadocia (a region in central Turkey); some shells found at the site came all the way from the Red Sea. Although we know the site was part of a regional network system, it was made up of different households that participated in the system. What is very important in archaeological research is to connect smaller households’ intimate stories to larger systems. The individual stories of households are important because culture and social networks exist through combinations and interactions of these intimate histories. At Çatalhöyük, we are able to connect these households and intimate stories through meticulous excavation and detailed analysis. For example, the baskets are known to exist because we find their imprints on the floors of the houses. By taking a small sample of the soil containing the imprint and analyzing it under a microscope, a specialist trained in identifying the silica remains of plants (called phytoliths) can identify the basket as having been woven from date-palm leaves not native to the area. Careful excavation also reveals clues as to what people were doing within a space. While excavating Building 3, for example, Ruth Tringham and Mirjana Stevanovic identified a collapsed roof by its remains. However, they did not have any clues about what had actually happened on the roof in the past, as there were no activity remains. When a block of material from the roof was analyzed under a microscope, however, remains of a burnt surface showed that there had been a hearth on the roof. Microscopic bits of refuse from stone-tool production were found in the material as well, showing us that people also worked on top of their houses. At the same time, the intimate events and histories of Çatalhöyük can also contribute to our understanding of the past at a larger scale. They allow us to interpret different paths of change within Anatolia, such as the processes of sedentism (settling down), for example, or the domestication of plants and animals, social transformation, urbanism, and so on, within the context of the Near East and Europe. These characteristics of change can be further interpreted as part of a larger evolutionary pattern, and even on a global scale. This multi-scalar approach ensures that the Big Picture is constructed on a solid framework of all the smaller events and processes from which it is constructed. Senses of Place How do archaeologists build on their discoveries to imagine the sights and sounds of the past? How do archaeologists represent Çatalhöyük, both as it is today and as it once was? What media and methods can archaeologists use to communicate a sense of place to others Wherever we live, we exist within landscapes that have been formed through natural processes and transformed through cultural practices. Although our modern and urban lifestyles, in many cases, inhibit our full appreciation of the landscape around us, we all manage some escape or another: going to the beach, for example, or hiking in the woods. In archaeology, understanding the landscape around a settlement is crucial in interpreting the activities and lives of people who live within that landscape. How landscapes have been modified and changed to create a built environment to accommodate a society, and how a society works within that built environment, are issues tackled by archaeologists interested in the concept of place. In the concept and study of place as it has been developed by geographers and anthropologists, place is created through intricate networks constructed by people. According to these researchers, a place is lived in with both the mundane and festive social practices that form the different elements of society. Most importantly, a place is experienced differentially, where individuals have different impacts on the making and changing of their traditions. But how do archaeologists then use the concept of place in their archaeological interpretations? Archaeologists can take an important step toward understanding how a place may have been constituted in the past by reconstructing that place. That is what Mirjana Stevanovic did at Çatalhöyük when she built a replica house. Once in the house, one can imagine how constricted people might have been in their space, with no windows, dark corners, and smoke lingering around the ceiling. One can imagine the poignant odors that may have drifted from the nearby middens, the household’s refuse heaps. Was incense burnt to conceal the smell? What were people hearing, and how did it affect their senses of place? How did they see their own walls? Were they as dark as we see them today? In these small spaces, we know through micromorphological investigation that some areas were used for food preparation, and others for knapping obsidian, the glassy black stone used to make sharp-edged tools. Perhaps the elderly slept on the platforms found in the houses, with their ancestors buried below them. But whatever the people of Çatahöyük did at a given time, we know that their lives were changing as they were living: a little girl would ultimately become a mother; a family would abandon an old house and build a new one. For archaeologists who study senses of place, it’s important to be able to express these changes. Using multimedia and the World Wide Web offers an excellent way of presenting place and promoting different experiences through audio and visual reconstructions. In 2001, for example, archaeologists from the BACH team presented a series of multimedia/live-action performances called RAVE (Real Archaeologists, Virtual Excavations), in which videos of the excavation process of Building 3 allowed non-archaeologists to see archaeological practice through different windows. These videos are currently available on the RAVE website at www.mactia.berkeley.edu/features/rave/default.html. To facilitate explorations of the senses of place, site excavator Ruth Tringham, in collaboration with others in the Remediated Places project, developed video tours that guide users through the site based on different perspectives of fictional Çatalhöyük settlers. In these walks, not only can one see place, but one can also hear what it may have sounded like. But it is also important for archaeologists to emphasize that “archaeological” places are still active places. The local people at Çatalhöyük today, for example, see the mound not only as a grazing ground and picnic spot, but also as a marker in the landscape that situates their village of Küçükköy, just two kilometers away. For the archaeologists who come to excavate at Çatalhöyük, it is a meeting point, a working environment, an intellectual challenge, a socialization sphere, and more. For a tourist, it may only be a curious memory, but it can also be a sacred place. Every person has a different experience at Çatalhöyük. And to make it even more complex, every person has changing experiences at Çatalhöyük. Needless to say, it is difficult to express all of the meanings Çatalhöyük can have for all of the different people who visit or learn about it. Using this website, you can explore the site through different media, and “remix” them to create your own version of Çatalhöyük. The possibilities are endless.
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A simple project where students choose objects that represent things they enjoy and have accomplished, and then design a tomb illustrating them--just like the Egyptians.
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Passages explaining arranged marriage in India. Students read and answer questions.
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The British Empire

by Robert Lucas

Resources for teaching about the British Empire in middle school social studies.
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Ancient Greece

by Robert Lucas

Some resources for teaching about Ancient Greece in middle school. These were all from the same unit, but they don't constitute a complete unit here.
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Students look at and compare images to see how art changed in the Renaissance. This folder includes a powerpoint presentation and a worksheet.
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Chapter 5 Lesson Plans

by Justin March

This lesson plan discusses the role of a citizen in their community. We will deal with the duties and responsibilities of citizens as well as the services that communities provide for their citizens.
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Civics

by Justin March

This collection contains lesson plans for a Freshman level Civics and Citizenship class.
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Civil Cases

by Justin March

This presentation is to be used with the Chapter 17 Lesson Plans.
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Chapter 4 Lesson Plans

by Justin March

This lesson plan deals with the Bill of Rights.
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Culture Quest

by Carla Cbird

This is a WebQuest about geography.
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Adaptations Match-up

by Nixgrim Pixie

Draw lines to match up the definitions with the key-words. (Rep South Africa Grade 8/9)
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Interactive Electoral Map
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Revolutionary War

by Jorrie Brandhagen

This unit will help students understand the American Revolution. Through a number of projects the students will gain knowledge to the war that led to the birth of the United States. During this unit students will: Become familiar with key vocabulary and important people Make a timeline outlining the important events of the war List the advantages and disadvantages of Britain and the United States Compare and contrast the strategies of Britain and the United States Construct a culminating PowerPoint presentation to present to their classmates
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American Civil War

by Jorrie Brandhagen

During this unit students will learn the causes of the Civil War, influential people during the Civil War, battles, the cultural differences between the North and the South, economic differences of the North and the South, the Reconstruction Era and other important information of the time period of the Civil War. This unit has been created for the use in fifth grade, but can easily be modified for other ages.
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Theodore Roosevelt

by Nicole Miller Miller Westborough

This is an anticipatory set for teaching TR.
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A soldier's life

by Jorrie Brandhagen

In this activity the students will research the life of a soldier from the Continental Army. Students will use informational books, text books and the internet to research. This activity will take three days. Once the students research the soldier's life they will write in their journals two paragraphs about a soldier's life. They must include, age of soldiers, uniforms, fighting strategies, weapons, food, illness, length of enlistment, and any other information they feel is important. This resource is part of the Revolutionary War collection.
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Handout for a project where students design a game a la Candyland involving events and facts about the history of Central Africa. This isn't very specific to Central Africa and could be used for other create-a-game projects with minimal modifications.
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ReviewLessonoftheCausesWorldWarII

by Jen Riggs Jen Riggs

This is a power point on the causes of World War II. It is used as a reveiw.
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Buddhist Beliefs

by Robert Lucas

Students read passages on Buddhism and answer questions.
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Chinese New Year

by Robert Lucas

A short reading and questions on the Chinese New Year.
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Students watch scenes from Hotel Rwanda and answer questions. Unfortunately, the scenes aren't listed. If you can figure it out, please add them. Objective: 7. I will be able to analyze the origin of the conflict between ethnic groups in Rwanda and describe the genocide that followed. Essential Question: "If you make a terrible mistake, will you make it again?" This resource is part of Unit 5: Genocide and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Reading and comprehension activity on the Rwandan genocide. Objective: 7) I will be able to analyze the origin of the conflict between ethnic groups in Rwanda and describe the genocide that followed. Essential Question: "If you make a terrible mistake, will you make it again?" This resource is part of Unit 5: Genocide and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Unit 5: Genocide

by Robert Lucas

This is a unit for 7th grade social studies. Lessons include: Sources of Nazism The Rise of Hitler Nuremberg Laws World War II and Death Camps Genocide Schindler's List Rwanda Darfur Unit resources include quizzes and seminar materials. This resource is part of the Social Studies 7 course.
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A powerpoint for prereading
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Write a Rap

by Mr. Harpine .

Guidelines for students to write a rap or song about the chapter they've most recently read in class. A great lesson for review or new topics.
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Lesson 5.4 Quiz Day

by Robert Lucas

Quiz on the first 3 objectives of the Genocide unit. Also, a Do Now and materials for a charades activity. This resource is part of Unit 5: Genocide and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Grafitti Activity

by Mr. Harpine .

A lesson strategy for reviewing a concept using "grafitti"
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CURRENT EVENTS FORMAT

by Mr. Harpine .

A form for completing current events assignments.
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Reading and partner comprehension activity on persecution of Jews in pre-war Germany under the Nuremberg Laws. Also, a meeting in Think Tank groups, and homework (making flashcards) for the week. This resource is part of Unit 5: Genocide and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Do Now: reviews previous lesson. Classwork: Reading and partner activity on the rise of Hitler. Classwork 2: Introduction of the 'P' in the SOAPS primary source protocol, Purpose. This resource is part of Unit 5: Genocide and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Grade 4 students from Hannibal, MO and Taipei, Taiwan worked in teams to arrive at solutions for 9 identified problems in the world. The web page is an example for other classes to use in creating their own international projects or using this project format.
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This lesson covers world resources and world economic activity.
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This instructional PowerPoint provides the format students will use once they have defined the term "civilization" and completed research using the internet and printed materials to create their own PowerPoint. This format includes slides for each of the following: a definition of the term "civilization"( thesis statement), 4 researched aspects of Ancient Egypt, trivia facts, Conclusion, Works Cited, and a photo gallery with captions. Students must include graphics. As an extension activity students should present their PowerPoints to the class.
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This is an introduction to physical geography. Objectives: 1) SWBAT identify all continents and oceans from memory (if unable to do so already). 2) SWBAT identify from memory major global physical features from memory (if they've already mastered their continents). 3) SWBAT build their arsenal of stories/memories with an analysis of how geography can change the course of history. This resource is part of Unit 0: Rules, Procedures & Themes and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Social Studies 7

by Robert Lucas

This is a 7th grade social studies curriculum originally taught at KIPP: Gaston College Prep in Gaston, NC. Units include: Unit 0: Rules, Procedures & Themes Unit 1: Belief Systems Unit 2: Empire Unit 3: Battles for Independence I Unit 4: Battles for Independence II Unit 5: Genocide Unit 6: China Unit 7: Middle East Unit 8: DBQ (Document Based Question) Writing Unit 9: Development Unit 10: DBQ Week This course also includes a packet of work to be completed during spring break, as well as enrichment lessons on jazz.
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This is a template for taking textbook notes at the middle school level. This resource is part of the Note Taking Formats collection.
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This resource is a brief PowerPoint presentation on a strategy for notetaking, where students learn to highlight text. This resource is part of the Note Taking Formats collection.
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Vocabulary Template

by Mr. Harpine .

This is a form you can use to analyze vocabulary terms. This resource is part of the Vocabulary Study collection.
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This is a brief PowerPoint which provides questions as to how to analyze a primary source. It is based upon the National Archives Format found at www.nara.gov. This resource is part of the Audio Texts, Music and Podcasts collection.
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Timeline Card Template

by Mr. Harpine .

These transparencies can be used to help students create timeline cards. This resource is part of the Note Taking Formats collection.
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Note Taking Formats

by Mr. Harpine .

The resources show different formats for note taking. You will also find PowerPoint presentations as well as templates which can be used to teach note taking.
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This folder includes the test for the Empire Unit. This resource is part of Unit 2: Empire and the Social Studies 7 course.
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This lesson includes a Do Now (crossword puzzle) and questions for Jeopardy for use on review day, before the Empire unit test. This resource is part of Unit 2: Empire and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Students draft a letter to the United Nations and take a quiz on the first 4 lessons in this unit. This resource is part of Unit 2: Empire and the Social Studies 7 course.
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This is a lesson that compares and contrasts settler and non-settler colonies. Objectives: 1) SWBAT compare and contrast settler and non-settler colonies in the European Empire. 2) SWBAT use their new mnemonic device to remember the names of all European countries that conquered parts of Africa. This resource is part of Unit 2: Empire and the Social Studies 7 course.
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This lesson is an introduction to imperialism. Objectives: 1) SWBAT explain the why many Europeans thought it was OK to take over Africa. 2) SWBAT use our new mnemonic device to help me remember those beliefs. This resource is part of Unit 2: Empire and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Unit 2: Empire

by Robert Lucas

This is a 15-day unit on empire for 7th grade Social Studies. Lessons include: Muslim Empire Imperialism Settler vs. Non-Settler Colonies Tragedies of Imperialism Rural to Urban Migrations This unit also includes a project, review, and a test. This resource is part of the Social Studies 7 course.
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This folder contains resources for day 5 of a layered curriculum unit on the Muslim Empire. This resource is part of Unit 2: Empire and the Social Studies 7 course.
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This is a lesson on rural to urban migrations. Objectives: 1) SWBAT analyze the reasons why many Africans moved from the countryside to the cities. 2) SWBAT describe the challenges and disappointments most Africans found once they made it to the cities. This resource is part of Unit 2: Empire and the Social Studies 7 course.
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This folder contains resources for Day 4 of a layered curriculum unit on the Muslim Empire. This resource is part of Unit 2: Empire and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Outline of major American Civil War battles and incidents from 1861-1863.
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World Geography

by Justin March

This collection contains lesson plans for High School World Geography
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This play provides a complete history of the USA in four acts.
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The lecture explains the process of transition from comparatively isolated subsistence societies based primarily on kinship to a global marketplace and community. It also discusses the development and implementation of key international standards related to work and society in this context.
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This is a short (6 pp) introduction to India. It covers history, politics, culture and language (Hindi). It is best used as a handout in the context of a lecture.
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D-Day Journal Entry

by Adam Zunic

Journal Entry that accompanies D-Day Power Point presentation.
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Power Point Presentation on the Allied invasion of France. AKA D-Day June 6.
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A Republican Government
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This lesson challenges students to consider the appropriate balance between individual rights and the good of the whole.
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A jeopardy game created in PowerPoint, tests student's recall of people, years, events, places, and reasons of the revolutionary period and critical period in U.S. history. Useful on individual level for study practice or can be displayed for class game.
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This is a very famous painting which is very descriptive of the sentiments of the era on the subject of westward expansion. As the painting is analyzed, one can even tie in the concept of 'Manifest Destiny'.
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This is an 8th grade American History unit constructed around a central question: At what point should the U.S. take action to settle foreign conflicts? The unit focuses on the Unites State's rise to power at the beginning of the 20th century and serves to scaffold student learning so they are able to evaluate US foreign policy with respect to the cases of Somalia and Rwanda.
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Activity Content

by James Esguerra

This is the formatted text block that provides a possible structure for the contents of this activity. It should be edited to show the member's own material.
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Ancient Civilizations

by vamsee chaitanya

A basic powerpoint presentation that provides accurate information and pictures about ancient civilizations.
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Culture Quest

by Eileen Hunger

WebQuest for 4th grade Geography
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4.19 Gandhi Assessment

by Robert Lucas

Test (actually, called a quest) on the Gandhi unit. Also includes some other materials for the day. This resource is part of Unit 4: Battles for Independence II and the Social Studies 7 course.
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4.18 Gandhi Review

by Robert Lucas

Review for test on Gandhi and SOAPS. Includes review sheets, Jeopardy questions, and a crossword puzzle. This resource is part of Unit 4: Battles for Independence II and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Extensive resources for a 2-circles Socratic seminar on Gandhi. Includes texts, sheets for students to set goals, follow along, evaluate each other, and reflect on their own performance. This resource is part of Unit 4: Battles for Independence II and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Powerpoint to help prepare students for a Socratic seminar. It provides 5 Gandhi quotes, two possible paraphrases, and asks students to choose the better one. The last couple slides provide answers to the classwork activities from lesson 4.16. This resource is part of Unit 4: Battles for Independence II and the Social Studies 7 course.
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4.16 Seminar Prep Day

by Robert Lucas

Preparation for a Socratic seminar on Gandhi. 1) Students practice evaluating attempts to paraphrase. 2) Students act out sample Socratic seminar (script provided) and the other students evaluate each participant on a provided rubric. Objective: 11. I will be able to participate actively and intelligently in my first historical Socratic seminar. Essential Question: "What is it that makes someone powerful?" This resource is part of Unit 4: Battles for Independence II and the Social Studies 7 course.
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4.15 Gandhi (Movie 3)

by Robert Lucas

Students finish watching the movie "Gandhi." Do Now is a review of earlier in the movie. Classwork is a viewing guide like from previous days. This resource is part of Unit 4: Battles for Independence II and the Social Studies 7 course.
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4.14 Gandhi (Movie 2)

by Robert Lucas

Students watch a second section of the movie "Gandhi." The Do Now is a review of yesterday's section, and the classwork is a sophisticated viewing guide similar to the one used on Day 1. This resource is part of Unit 4: Battles for Independence II and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Students begin watching the movie "Gandhi." The Do Now is background reading, and the file also includes a viewing guide where students answer a few comprehension questions, formulate a few of their own questions at different levels of Bloom's Taxonomy, and identify important lines in the movie. This resource is part of Unit 4: Battles for Independence II and the Social Studies 7 course.
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This is the first lesson for a course on race and racism in America. The purpose of this lesson is to get students to begin their thinking about what defines race and racism, where it manifests itself in American society, and how it has affected their lives.
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Four cases and questions to help students understand how the Supreme Court uses the Balancing Test to decide constitutional law issues. Some cases are real (Tinker v. Des Moines) and some are hypothetical.
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something simThe learner will locate her home using Google Maps (or other aerial/satellite imaging) and identify two landmarks nearby. This is a simple and fun activity I created when Google Maps first came out a couple of years ago. Since then there have been many enhancements to Google Maps that will make this activity even easier and more stimulating. .
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Civics Curriculum

by Andrew Pass

The first unit contains overarching themes including factors underlying the formation of the United States of America and its system of government. Domestic and foreign influences were catalysts in the foundation of our political system. Unit one identifies important vectors in the beginnings of American culture and society. Unit two focuses on the United States Constitution as the essential document for the founding of the United States of America as a new nation. Several key ideas and documents that influenced the creation of the Constitution are spanned, as well as an in-depth examination of the Articles as they relate to government and citizens rights and responsibilities, and the continuing effect of the Constitution on contemporary issues. Examined at the core of unit three are the structure and functionality of the United States government at the local, state, and federal levels. The lessons within are designed to challenge students to recognize cross-governmental similarities and differences, and apply such an understanding to events that significantly impact students’ lives. The fourth and final unit moves outside of the borders of the United States and considers the impact of the United States system of government on a global scale. The lessons have been designed to engage students with the pertinent issues of world politics, international trade relations, and foreign affairs policies.
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Students read about the Persian Gulf War (ie Desert Storm), complete a comprehension activity, and do a stations activity on the geography of the Middle East. This resource is part of Unit 7: Middle East and the Social Studies 7 course.
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9thEconomicsPrice

by william knox

An non-timed, 15-slide PowerPoint presentation discussing Price in the microeconomic marketplace. Covered is the law of demand, the law of supply, surplus and shortage, the equilibrium point.
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Lesson on military dictatorships in postcolonial Africa. Includes Do Now, classwork (reading and questions) and geography homework. Objective: I will be able to analyze the reasons why so many African democracies failed and describe the type of government that took their place. Essential Question: When is a battle for independence actually over? This resource is part of Unit 3: Battles for Independence I and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Students read about Gandhi, then create a 30 second silent skit about some aspect of his life. This resource is part of Unit 4: Battles for Independence II and the Social Studies 7 course.
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This PowerPoint presentation outlines the growth of cluture in Mexico from the Aztec Empire to the economic systems of today. It goes along with the Chapter 10 Lesson Plans.
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Media & the Cold War

by Anna Hambrook

A collection of images and videos put into a PowerPoint presentation. This is meant to be used as a discussion tool and to inspire critical thinking. -What is the image/video saying directly? -What is the image/video really say? What is the hidden message? -What visual aspects are being used? What feelings do the images incite? -Who is the target audience? These images from the Cold War can also be partnered with images from today's current events. Ask the students to point out the similarities and differences between propaganda during the Cold War and propaganda now. Ask students to make their own propaganda poster.
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Local Heroes

by Bill Munn

Description: Students choosing this project will research a man or woman who has made a significant difference in the life of the community or nation. This person could have performed heroic service in the military, or in fighting crime, or in helping others during the period 1900-1950. Marion, Indiana, like the surrounding communities of Muncie, Kokomo, and Anderson were representative of the boom and bust cycles of the first half of the last century. During this era, Marion experienced the full range of problems facing industrial America. This project has students choose an area resident of at least fifty years ago who made a great effort to deal with those issues, research the individual’s history and significance to Marion/Grant County. Project Goals: • Students will produce original media presentations as part of their projects in order to make the results of their research available to the public • Students will produce original projects that demonstrate mastery of advanced research skills. • Student projects and media presentations will demonstrate a high level of understanding of the history of the arts in the first half of the twentieth century as reflected in specific institutions and individuals in Marion, Indiana. Resources: • Marion Public Library Indiana Room. Vertical files and newspaper microfilm • Internet Resources • Books and periodicals Procedures: • Students will identify local person for research. • Research topic will be approved by Mr. Munn. • Student will begin information collection. Please note that all information will be placed in a notebook and turned in with the project. • Students will prepare a three to five page paper according to the MLA style, in body citation. • Students will include photos whenever possible. These will be placed in an appendix. • Students will prepare and include in the final product, a bibliography of works used in preparation of the paper. • Students will carefully edit the project. • The project will be word processed using 12point font. • The paper will be presented in a three ring notebook in sheet protectors. • Students will prepare PowerPoint presentation of their project to accompany an oral presentation of their work. • Students will post projects to wikimarion.org.
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The Breathing Earth

by Robert Lucas

A very slick flash animation showing real-time estimated births, deaths, and CO2 emissions.
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An activity which has students read two articles about the same set of real events, one focusing on the crime, and the other discussing the possibility of a civil suit. Students fill out a chart while they are reading to help them compare and contrast civil and criminal laws. Finally, a set of notes on differences between civil and criminal laws is also included for follow-up discussion.
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This lesson introduces government as a theme running through the class. Objectives: 1) SWBAT define democracy, monarchy, theocracy, legislative, executive, and judicial. 2) SWBAT compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of each type of gov. 3) SWBAT tell another empowering memory and draw another problem solving lesson from history. This resource is part of Unit 0: Rules, Procedures & Themes and the Social Studies 7 course.
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This is a comprehensive book report template for use with any book. It reviews common reading skills. It can be applied to any grade level as well. However, in K-3, it is suggested that the teacher do the book report and use the information along with a book that is read aloud. The work is in progress and I would like suggestions for changes, especially the questions on the last page.
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This is an integrated social studies and science unit focusing on two key figures in the Civil Rights Movement: Martin Luther King Jr. and Jackie Robinson ,using the overarching theme of cause and effect.
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Smart Board

by Mr. Harpine .

A collection of smart board activities. You can save any information you write on these files by simply saving the file under a new file name. You can also export as pdf using the Notebook software (useful for make up work.)
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The students will fill in a concept map about the causes of The Great Depression and create their own newspaper article about the stock market crash.
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Ancient Egypt Web Quest

by k_stumpo kstumpo

This Webquest is a lesson based for fifth grade students in Social Studies. They are sent on a mission to explore King Tut's tomb and learn about his life and burial grounds.
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This is the teacher page for a webquest designed for 11th grade history classes about the Holocaust and World War II.
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A Sad Moment in Time

by Rebecca Becca

This is a webquest for 11th grade history classes about World War II and the Holocaust.
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How Times Change!

by Robert Lucas

A wonderful assignment where students interview an older friend or family member. These are really fun to read when the kids are done!
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Imperialism Power Point

by Sue Costagliola East Meadow School District

Imperialism Power Point
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8th GT "Ghosts of Rwanda " Movie Quiz

by Ms. Gipson GT Teacher RMS

Quiz over the movie " Ghosts of Rwanda"
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This is a webquest for a Social Studies 3rd Grade classroom on colonial America
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Culture Quest

by Carla Cbird

This is a geography and Social Studies WebQuest
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This lesson was designed by West Chester Universities EDM 300 class to give teachers and students an educational web quest. This web quest is intended for history classes to give high school seniors knowledge of how foreign relationships were and have changed since 9/11. This lesson was designed by West Chester Universities EDM 300 class to give teachers and students an educational web quest. This web quest is intended for history classes to give high school seniors knowledge of how foreign relationships were and have changed since 9/11. In the lesson, students will be expected to perform several tasks like researching a specific country that they have drawn from a hat, researching the U.S.'s past and current U.S. foreign policy with this country, making a google doc about the topic, and then presenting their findings in front of the class. By the end of the lesson the students will be aware of the problems the U.S. has with certain countries as well as the proposed solutions for these problems. This lesson is for 12th grade History students. This lesson could also be easily used for Government students. Prior to this lesson, students do not need to have any substantial knowledge of the topic.
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A Photo Essay

by Folwell Dunbar

A lesson that helps learners take a closer look at their community in pictures and in words.
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This lesson was developed as part of the West Chester University's Web Quest Project to engage children in a lesson on The First Thanksgiving. What you will be instructing to the class is an investigation of the history of Thanksgiving to expand the children's knowledge on the holiday and how and where it originated. First the children will be creating and filling in a KWL chart describing what they know about the first Thanksgiving, what they want to know, and what they learned from researching the topic. After they have filled in the chart they will be researching more specific things about the people, food, and activities that were involved in the first Thanksgiving. Then the children will be separated into groups of 3 or 4 and research a specific group of people involved in the First Thanksgiving by using the links provided on the page to conduct their research. Then after the children have done their research they will be talking over what information they have collected with their group members then creating a personal journal about what they found. They will use these journals to then re-enact in their groups the first Thanksgiving. To add to their re-enactment they can bring in pictures, food, or props to make their re-enactment more interesting and creative. After they have completed the re-enactment then they will go back to their KWL charts and fill in the section "what I learned" to complete the assignment and they can even share this with their family and friends. There are many different multiple intelligence's involved in this activity so it makes the lesson a lot more appealing to more then one type of learner. Bodily kinesthetic is one intellegence used in this activity because the when the children are re-enacting what they researched they will be moving around the room and usig props to create a visual for the other groups in the class. They learn better by verbally hearing things and seeing images at the same time. Interpersonal Intelligence is another one present in this activity. They work better in groups and they like being leaders or followers in the group discussions and activities involved. This would work great during the discussion on what facts they researched and also during the planning of their re-enactment. Logical mathmatical is also present in this lesson. This intellegence has to do with being a good investigator so it will be good for the research part of the project. In this lesson the children will reach the cognitive level of analysis because of the KWL chart we have created for them to see what they do know what they'd like to know wand finally what they have learned due to the activity designed for them to complete. In the KWL chart they are able to compare what they do know about thanksgiving to what they don't know and then they are able to narrow down what they will be researching. Synthesis is present because the children can see how the ideas of the first thanksgiving and what they did on that day and what is now done on Thanksgiving has been combined and now has a little bit of the past and the present ideas in the holiday. It also allows the children to see how times change and different groups of people still celebrate the holiday but in their own ways but they are all somewhat similar to another. They can also predict what might happen in future Thanksgiving celebrations and wonder what traditions will stick and what new ones might be created. Evaluation of what they learned and what they thought was important in their research of Thanksgiving is present. They can describe this in their journals after they have conducted their research. The reasons everyone has different Thanksgiving traditions is because different things about the holiday are more important to others. Everyone prioritizes what it is that they will do on Thanksgiving and what they will get out of the hoilday and pass on to their future generations. Standards 4.4.1 Understands that historical events in United States have implications for current decisions and influence the future 4.3.1 Analyzes the multiple perspectives and interpretations of historical events in U.S. history 5.2.1 Understands how essential questions define the significance of researching a significant issue or event 1.1.5 (B) Select texts for a particular purpose using the format of the text as a guide. 1.1.5 (A) Establish the purpose for reading a type of text (literature, information) before reading. 1.1.5 (G) Demonstrate after reading understanding and interpretation of both fiction and nonfiction text. Summarize the major ideas, themes or procedures of the text. Relate new information or ideas from the text to that learned through additional reading and media (e.g., films, audiotapes). Clarify ideas and understandings through rereading and discussion. Make responsible assertions about the ideas from the text by citing evidence. Extend ideas found in the text. 1.4.5 Write poems, plays and multi-paragraph stories. Include detailed descriptions of people, places and things. Use relevant illustrations. 1.5.5 Write using well-developed content appropriate for the topic. Gather, organize and select the most effective information appropriate for the topic, task and audience. 1.8.5 Locate information using appropriate sources and strategies Reflection on Standards Through researching on the internet, reading through various books, and looking at many videos about the first Thanksgiving, students will be able to collect the useful information from the many mediums and put together a clear understanding of what transpired at the first Thanksgiving in 1621. Each student will individually be able to summarize the major ideas and themes through their research and understanding by writing in their journal. The knowledge of historical importance should be very evident through each child's research as well. The acting out of the journal entry will ensure that the students are able to clarify issues that the other students in the class may have while clarifying their own understanding at the same time. Each area of research compilation and organization of facts strengthens many parts of each student's learning ability.
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Ancient Puppet Show

by Folwell Dunbar

An activity to help young archaeologists learn about ancient cultures.
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Map Adventure

by steph hesslein

The purpose of this Web quest is to teach students about maps, map keys and symbols. Students are asked to find the route they take from school to get to their home and show the path taken on a map. Instead of using countless papers to map their route out, the goal is to integrate the new technologies into this lesson such as Map Quest. Along with using these new websites, students are required to use digital cameras to take pictures of familiar landmarks they encounter on their way home. Visual-Spatial intelligence will be addressed by having pupils use mental images and remembering maps in their head. This type of intelligence requires children to remember routes and their natural or man-made landmarks they took pictures of and where they fit in along the route. Along with this, the Interpersonal intelligence will be addressed. Students will need to use this intelligence to work and collaborate with one another to help put the entire project together. This will help children to make connections and cooperate with their fellow classmates not just during the duration of the project but they would also retain their connections throughout the school year.
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After remediation week, there were still quite a few students who hadn't met the DBQ requirements. So Ben did a one-week enrichment unit on international development with the finished students, while the others completed their requirements. This lesson compares developed and developing nations and asks why we should care about international development. This resource is part of Unit 9: Development and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Discusses 4 policy options for improving international development: direct aid in goods, direct aid in money, loans, and incentives to US companies. Students read, do a comprehension activity, and evaluate these options. This resource is part of Unit 9: Development and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Looks at population growth in Africa, why it can be a problem, and what can be done do address it. This resource is part of Unit 9: Development and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Examines population growth in China and China's solutions to the problem. Students are asked to imagine themselves a Chinese citizen and evaluate the policy. This resource is part of Unit 9: Development and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Lesson plan introducing human rights and tying the concept to cases studies earlier in the semester. This resource is part of Unit 9: Development and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Students review human rights and then create human rights advisories for 2 countries studied. Objectives: 5. I will be able to define 'human rights,' describe why certain countries do not protect these rights, and evaluate the types of things the U.S. can do about it. This resource is part of Unit 9: Development and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Lesson 9.8 Offshoring

by Robert Lucas

Students learn about off-shoring and outsourcing and examine them from several different perspectives. This resource is part of Unit 9: Development and the Social Studies 7 course.
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Unit 9: Development

by Robert Lucas

A short unit on development. This was taught to students who had already met objectives for writing DBQs, while those who hadn't were remediated. Lessons include: Developed and Developing Nations Policy Options Population Growth in Africa Population Growth in China Human Rights Offshoring Resources include projects and quizzes. This resource is part of the Social Studies 7 course.
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This project examines how a new culture was created in the 20s through advertisement.
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The French Revolution

by shayna wright

Description: This lesson was developed by three undergraduate Secondary Education Majors at the West Chester University, in Integration of Technology in Education course. The goal of this assignment for us was to create a WebQuest that challenges the student to work together using multiple resources integrating Technology into the classroom. Because we are Secondary Education Majors, our WebQuest is geared toward 9th-12th grade students. This lesson challenges students to do research on the French Revolution and analyze how the social classes of the Era were portrayed in the film Les Miserables. They will then take their own thoughts about the social classes and produce a novel creation. This project helps student build interpersonal and linguistic intelligence. The will be working in groups and doing research which will challenge the categories. This WebQuest takes students through just about every cognitive level of Bloom's Taxonomy, with areas emphasized more than other. These students are required to remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate and create to be successful in this WebQuest. This WebQuest is designed for a 9th-12th grade French class. It is made to cover material for the culture, not language section of the course. It involves social studies, language arts, but there is some French language exposure in the film. This WebQuest could be modified for a research project in a Language arts class, or it could be used in a social studies classroom.
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These are web quests and internet scavenger hunts that were designed for a class in Modern World History.
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? This is a unit that focuses on the Reconstruction Period (1865-1877). This topic of study takes places after the Civil War, so therefore, it is critical that students have a thorough understanding of the important terms, historical figures, and events that took place over this period of time. This course of study will include government policies that influence the social, economic, and political aspects of life for African-Americans during the Reconstruction period. In addition, students will be introduced to specific terms that will reinforce the essence of this topic- Why is accepting diversity important to sustaining our society? Racial discrimination was a key part of the hindrance of progress and growth of our nation during this time. The long-term effects were inequality, poverty, and social and political unrest.
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Civil War Lesson Plan

by Alexandria Lau

This lesson takes a look at the Civil War from multiple perspectives by interpreting the quotes of major figures involved in the war.
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